Download Verbals (participles, gerunds, infinitives)

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Latin syntax wikipedia, lookup

Pipil grammar wikipedia, lookup

Spanish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Georgian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Hungarian verbs wikipedia, lookup

Polish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Serbo-Croatian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Lexical semantics wikipedia, lookup

Yiddish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Portuguese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Chinese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ancient Greek grammar wikipedia, lookup

Navajo grammar wikipedia, lookup

Modern Hebrew grammar wikipedia, lookup

Kannada grammar wikipedia, lookup

English clause syntax wikipedia, lookup

Udmurt grammar wikipedia, lookup

Esperanto grammar wikipedia, lookup

Old English grammar wikipedia, lookup

English verbs wikipedia, lookup

Swedish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Lithuanian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Russian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Germanic strong verb wikipedia, lookup

Ukrainian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Inflection wikipedia, lookup

Old Norse morphology wikipedia, lookup

Germanic weak verb wikipedia, lookup

Malay grammar wikipedia, lookup

French grammar wikipedia, lookup

Zulu grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ancient Greek verbs wikipedia, lookup

Kagoshima verb conjugations wikipedia, lookup

Old Irish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Icelandic grammar wikipedia, lookup

Japanese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Latin conjugation wikipedia, lookup

Spanish verbs wikipedia, lookup

Finnish verb conjugation wikipedia, lookup

German verbs wikipedia, lookup

Infinitive wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Verbals (participles, gerunds, infinitives)
A verbal is a noun or adjective formed from a verb. Writers sometimes make mistakes by using a
verbal in place of a verb, and in very formal writing, by confusing different types of verbals. This
section covers three different verbals: the participle (which acts as an adjective), the gerund (which acts
as a noun), and the infinitive (which also acts as a noun).
The fundamental difference between verbals and other nouns and adjectives is that verbals can
take their own objects, even though they are no longer verbs:
Gerund
Building a house is complicated.
In this example, the noun phrase “a house'' is the direct object of the verbal “building'', even
though “building'' is a noun rather than a verb.
The Participle
A participle is an adjective formed from a verb. To make a present participle, you add “-ing'' to
the verb, sometimes doubling the final consonant:
“think'' becomes “thinking''
“fall'' becomes “falling''
“run'' becomes “running''
The second type of participle, the past participle, is a little more complicated, since not all verbs
form the past tense regularly.
The following are all past participles:
the sunken ship
a ruined city
a misspelled word
Note that only transitive verbs can use their past participles as adjectives, and that unlike other
verbals, past participles do not take objects (unless they are part of a compound verb).
The Gerund
A gerund is a noun formed from a verb. To make a gerund, you add “-ing'' to the verb, just as
with a present participle. The fundamental difference is that a gerund is a noun, while a participle is an
adjective:
gerund
I enjoy running. (“Running'' is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb “enjoy.'')
participle
Stay away from running water. (“Running'' is an adjective modifying the noun “water''.)
Using Verbals
There are two common problems that come up when writers use verbals. The first is that since
verbals look like verbs, they sometimes cause students to write fragmentary sentences:
[WRONG] Oh, to find true love!
[WRONG] Jimmy, swimming the most important race of his life.
The second problem is a very fine point, which most editors and some teachers no longer enforce.
Although they look the same, gerunds and present participles are different parts of speech, and need to
be treated differently. For example, consider the following two sentences:
I admire the woman finishing the report.
I admire the woman's finishing the report.
In the first example, “finishing'' is a participle modifying the noun “woman'': in other words, the
writer admires the woman, not what she is doing; in the second example, “finishing'' is a participle,
modified by the possessive noun “woman's'': in other words, the writer admires not the woman herself
but the fact that she is finishing the report.
VERBALS IN PASSIVE STRUCTURES
Verbals or verb forms can also take on features of the passive voice. An infinitive
phrase in the passive voice, for instance, can perform various functions within a
sentence (just like the active forms of the infinitive).
Subject: To be elected by my peers is a great honor.
Object: That child really likes to be read to by her mother.
Modifier: Grasso was the first woman to be elected governor in her own right.
The same is true of passive gerunds.
Subject: Being elected by my peers was a great thrill.
Object: I really don't like being lectured to by my boss.
Object of preposition: I am so tired of being lectured to by my boss.
With passive participles, part of the passive construction is often omitted, the
result being a simple modifying participial phrase.
[Having been] designed for off-road performance, the Pathseeker does not always behave
well on paved highways.
Gerund or Infinitive as Object of Verb?
Gerunds and infinitives can both be used as subjects, subject complements, and direct objects of
verbs. The choice of whether to use a gerund or infinitive as a subject, subject complement, or object of
some verbs is left to the speaker/writer. This choice can indicate shades of meaning.
But the choice between which to use as a direct object is sometimes dictated by the verb, leaving
no choice. Which verbs can be followed by gerunds, which by infinitives, (and which by either) must
be memorized. In addition, some verbs require that an infinitive object have a different subject (agent)
from that of the first verb, for others no other agent is possible, and for some both are possible. Again,
these must be memorized. The general meanings associated with gerunds and infinitives can offer clues,
but do not always predict which forms are possible.
Remember, the question here concerns verbs which control gerunds and infinitives as their
objects. Of course, both infinitives and gerunds can follow an unlimited number of verbs for other
reasons. For example, infinitives can also follow verbs to show purpose, in reduced adjective or adverb
clauses, or with other meanings. Gerunds with noun modifiers can be the objects of many different
verbs. And present participles, which may look like gerunds, are not controlled by preceding verbs.
And remember that noun clauses can also be used as objects of many of these same verbs
can afford
can't bear
begin
VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OR GERUND OBJECTS,
with little or no difference in meaning:
____ studying.
____ to study.
cease
dread
loathe
prefer
start
commence hate
love
propose
undertake
continue
like
neglect
(can't) stand
Admit
anticipate
appreciate
avoid
complete
consider
defend
delay
VERBS THAT CAN HAVE GERUND OBJECTS, BUT NOT INFINITIVES:
(usually actual events, often past)
_____ (his) studying
gerund subjects (agents) are usually possessive (his , etc.)
deny
get through
mention
recollect
stop
detest
give up
(not) mind
recommend
suggest
discuss
go on
miss
report
take up
dislike
can't help
postpone
resent
tolerate
enjoy
imagine
practice
resist
understand
escape
involve
put off
resume
excuse his keep (on)
quit
risk
finish
would like (him) recall
(can't) see
VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OBJECTS, BUT NOT GERUNDS:
(often suggesting a potential or unreal event)
_______ to study
him = infinitive must have a subject (agent)
for him = infinitive must have a subject introduced by for
(him) or (for him) = subject (agent) of infinitive is optional
(none of the above = verb is followed directly by the infinitive)
command
Agree
him
fail
long
aim
condescend
force him
manage
appear
consent
get (him)
motivate him
appoint him
convince
happen
need (him)
arrange (for
him
hesitate
oblige him
him)
dare (him)
hire him
offer
authorize him decide
help him
order him
ask (him)
demand
hope
pay him
beg (him)
deserve
instruct him
persuade him
(not) care
desire
intend
plan
cause him
direct him
invite him
prepare (him)
challenge him enable him
lead him
pretend
choose (him) endeavor
learn
proceed
claim
expect
(him)
promise
refuse
remind him
resolve
seem
select him
send him
strive
struggle
swear
tell him
tend
threaten
train him
trust him
volunteer
vow
wait (for him)
want (him)
warn him
wish (him)
yearn
VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OR GERUND OBJECTS,
but with a difference in meaning:
Attempt
forget
mean
regret
remember
try
________ studying
actual:
first it happens; then there is mental
activity)
do it, hoping for success
do it, then have a mental lapse
it exists, it has a significance
do it, then feel bad
do it, then be aware of it
do it, hoping for success
________ to study.
potential:
first there is mental activity about a possible
future event)
make an effort, hoping to do it
have a mental lapse, and therefore not do it
have an intention to do it
feel bad, but then do it
think about it, and then do it
make an effort, hoping to do it
VERBS THAT CAN HAVE INFINITIVE OBJECTS WITH AGENTS, OR GERUNDS :
_______ studying
___ him to study
Advise
allow
encourage
forbid
permit
require
teach
urge
Exercise
1. Teachers often suggest (study) harder as a recipe against negative marks. Nevertheless, many
students risk (fail) tests, because they are lazy as hell. Then they complain about (to be treated)
unfairly. Actually, they are not really interested in (increase) their knowledge.
2. He stopped (ask) a policeman for the way to Westminster Abbey.
3. I don't want him (come) here so often.
4. (look) at these photos is almost like (be) there.
5. After (to practise) a lot the band started a tour through Switzerland.
6. I forgot (tell) you that I don't like to play cards.
7. After finishing the HAK, some pupils wish (go) abroad for a year.
8. Before (start) your car, you should always buckle up.
9. Girls usually prefer (ride) horses to (play) computer games.
10. He entered the room without (see) me.
Correct the following sentences.
1. The writer Edgar Allen Poe is usually credited with invent the short story.
2. A single-lens reflex camera allows a photographer seeing exactly what the camera will photograph.
3. There are probably around 3000 languages speaking in the world.
4. For decades, journalist Theodore H. White wrote books described American presidential elections.
5. Nutmeg, widely is used as a spice, is actually the kennel of a tropical spice.
6. Viral infections are generally more difficult to treating than bacterial infections.
7. Sports parachutes are relatively easy controlling.
8. A sudden sound can make a golfer to miss a shot.
9. The largest knowing insects are found in tropical rain forests.
10.
Hypnosis is sometimes employed as a means of helping people to quit to smoke.
Exercise on infinitives
1.How soon do you expect
(A) to leave
for South America?
(B) be leaving
2.It is useless for you
(A)try
3.I hope
(C) will leave
(D) going to leave
(C) tries
(D) to trying
to do this.
(B) to try
to the birthday party tonight.
(A) able to come
(B) I shall able to come
(C) I shall can come
4.It is too Iate
(D) to be able to come
there.
(A) that we walk
(B) for us walking
5.He warned me
(C) us to walk
(D) for us to walk
swimming alone because of the rain.
(A) didn't go
(B) not go
(C) not to go
6.The manager ordered the work
.
(A) start at once
(B) at once start
(C) to be started at once
(D) to start at once
7.He finds it easy
(D) not going
English as a foreign language.
(A) to learn
(B) learning
8.I think it a good habit
(C) learned
early in the morning.
(A) to get up
(B) got up
(C) getting up
9.All the clerks in the bank stopped
(A) to write
10.I am sorry , but I forgot
(C) written
(D) writing
the candy you wanted.
(B) buying
(C) of buying
11.Having worked for several hours, the manager stopped
(A) to taking
(D) to getting up
to look at him.
(B) write
(A) to buy
(D) and learn
(B) to take
(D) to have bought
a rest.
(C) taking
(D) taken
12.When your country calls you for help , you cannot but
(A) to go
(B) going
(C) go
13.The lazy young man does nothing but
(A) to play
(B) playing
14.You had better
all day long.
(C) play
(D) played
what he has to say.
(A) hear
(B) heard
15.You had better
(C) hearing
(D) to hear
Mary about the party. It's a surprising birthday party for her.
(A)not to tell
(B) not tell
16. When I was young, I
(C) don't tell
(C) get used to
drink tea, but now more people like coffee.
(A) be used to
(D) not tellin
play tennis quite well.
(A) was used to (B) used to
17. people
(D) help going
(B) get used to
(C) got used to
(D) used to
(D) use to
18. The mother watched her children
(A) to play
on the yard.
(B) playing
19. I can hear the girl
(A) sang
(C) was playing
(D) played
in the next room.
(B) to sing
(C) to singing
(D) singing
20. There is something wrong with the engine. We must have
(A) repair
(B) repairing
(C) to repair
(D)understand
21. I tried very hard , but I couldn't make myself
(A) understanding
(C) understand
(B) understands (C) understanding
(A) to
(C) as to
(D) in order to
cry over a novel.
(B) as to
25. Come closer
(C) that
(D) may
we can see you better.
(A) in order to
(B) so that
26. I am sorry
(C) so as to
(D) and this
you the other day.
(A) to offend
27. It's
(D) understand
borrow money from him.
(B) so as to
24. She is so foolish
(D) understood
in English ; his Eglish is too poor.
23. I don't know him well enough
(A) to
these tences.
(B) to understand
22. He is still unable to make himself
(A) understood
at once.
(B) offending
(C) to have offended
(D) not to have off'ended
day to waste. Let's go for a walk.
(A) such a nice
(B) so nice a
28. The words on the wall are
(A) too vague to
(C) a such nice
(D) too nice a
be recognized.
(B) too vague not to
(C) so vague that
(D) so vague as to
29. " Shall I walk you home~" " I don't mind if you do , but
(A) have to do
30. It is
31.
(B) have to walk me
(C) have
(D) have to
over spilt milk.
(A)no use to cry
(B) no use crying
(C) useless to crying
(D) useless crying
to give up a bad habit.
(A) Bob is difficult
(B) It is not difficult for me
(C) John is easy
(D) Dick is impossible
32. I admit it was foolish of me
what you hinted at.
(A) have not to understood
(B) have to not understood
(C) to not have understood
(D) not to have understood
33. He intended
(A) to go
abroad last year, but his mother suddenly fell ill.
(B) going
(C) to have gone
34. Every time cigarettes go up in price , many people try
(A) to stop to smoke
(B) stopping to smoke
(C) stopping
(D) to stop smoking
(D) having gone
.
35. If people are unwilling to hear you,
(A) you had better
to hold your tongue.
(B) you had
(C) it is better
(D) hadn't you better
36. Be.cause of sir pollution being greatly reduced , this city is still
.
(A) a good place which to live
(B) lived as a good place
(C) a good place to live in
(D) living as a good place
37. "I'll help you whenever you need me. " " Good- I'd like
me tomorrow.
(A) you helping
(B) that you will help
(C) you to help
(D) that you help
38. " What did you hear last night?" " I seemed
(A) hear
(B) to have heard
someone knock at the door. "
(C) to hear
39. John said that he had to run in order
(D) having heard
.
( A)that he catch the bus
(B) that he can catch the bus
(C) to catch the bus
(D) to the bus he could catch
Many Chinese students ever made up their minds
1.
English when they began to learn it.
However, a few months later, they found
2.
Of course , there is no royal road to
. In my opinion , Chinese students should first of all form
the good habit
5.
4.
not so easy to master English as they
Dictionanaries whenever
6.
Secondly, they had better take good advantage of their vacation
3.
before.
any difficulty in learning it.
7.
a trip to foreign countries so
that they may widen their knowledge about English. But, the hest way
8.
it is
9.
more,
speak more, listen more and write more. As it plays a very important role in international affairs , the
English lang'uage is really well worth
l. (A) to be good at
2. (A) which
10.
(B) being good at
(B) its
(C) it
(C) be good for
(D) good at
(D) one
3. (A) had thought
(B) have thought
4. (A)learn
(B) learning
5. (A) of consulting
(B) by looking up
(C) looking up
(D) to consults
6. (A) they met
(B) meeting
(C) have met
(D) to meet
7. (A) to take
(B) taking
8. (A) of master (B) to master
(C) thought of
(C) learned
(D) think of
(D) learner
(C) be taken
(D) and takes
(C) mastered
(D) mastering
9. (A) of reading
(B) to read
10. (A) us to learn
(B) us leaming
(C) to reading
(C) our to learn
(D) reading
(D) our learning
Exercise on Gerund
l. Taking pictures
(A) is
2.
(B) are
(C) to be
(D) be
the bad news made him cry.
(A) Hear
3.
very interesting.
(B) Heard
(C) Hearing
(D)Is hearining'
a desert has always been a risk adventure.
(A) Being crossed
(B) Having crossed
4. Before he came, I'd finished
(A) to read
(A) to listen
(B) listening
(B) to take
(C) to be taking
(B) my looking
(A) to beat
(A) thinking
(C) that I can listen
(C) beat
(B) think
(C) to think
(B) for joy
(B) to seeing
(C) saying
(D) mentioning
(C) to be seeing
(D) shall see
books and magazines.
(B) buying
(C) to buy
(D)bought
.
(B) knowing
15. She went out without
(C) to.be known
(D) being
good-bye to us.
(B) to say
(C) saying
16.The curious student kept on
(D) being a
questions.
(B) asking
(C) to ask
17.He is such a strange person ; there's
(A) no knowing
(D) to drinking
our friends next week.
14. The silkworm is an insect worth
(A)asks
.
(C) instead of sleeping
(B) telling
13. He spent a lot of money
(A)say
(D) thoughf
that knowledge ia important.
12. We are looking forward
(A) to know
(D) beaten
he is still alive.
(A) talking
(A) buy
(D) mine to look
,he dies.
(B) beating
11. It goes without
(A) to see
(D) taking
(C) I looking
10. So far as I am concerned , I prefer reading
(A) than meat
(D) if I can listen
at your newspaper.
8. When a man's heart stops
9. I can't help
(D) read
a trip around the island.
7. I hope you don't mind
(A) I look
(C) reading
to popular music at night.
6. We are considering
(A) take
(D) To have crossed
the whole book.
(B) to have read
5. I always enjoy
(C) Crossing
(D) asked
what he'll do next.
(B) not to know
(C) not known
(D) being unknown
18. When she heard the bad news, she burst
(A) into crying
.
(B) out to tears
(C) crying
19. You must never cross the street without
(A) waiting
the light to turn green.
(B) to wait
20. Scientists succeed
(D) out crying lg
(C) waiting for
(D) to wait for
protein out of old newspapers.
(A) to make
(B) at making
(C) making
(D) in making
21. He wrote letter after letter, and it was well past midnight when he finished
(A) to write
(B) written
22. None of us objected to
(A) invite
(C) having written
24. I remember
25.
(B) inviting
(C) have invited
(D) invited
in the accident.
(B) to have been hurt
(C) being hurt
(D) from hurting
the house about an hour ago.
(A) to see him leave
(B) to see him to leave
(C)to see him leaving
(D) seeing him leave
going to the movies tonight~
(A) How about
(B) Would you please
(C) Would you like
(D) I don't mind to
26. Whatever Mr. Brown does, he does it with an eye to
(A) make
(B) be making
27.You'll soon get used to
(A) take
more money.
(C) making
(D) have made
early morning walks. It does wonderful things to your health.
(B) taking
(C) be taking
28.He stopped me from telling her the secret by
(D) be taken
.
(A)judging from the fact
(B) means of hard work .
(C) putting his finger to his lips
(D) virtue of thrift
29.When you find something in your writing that needs
(A) to be correcting
30.
(D) writing
George to the birthday party.
23. To our surprise, he escaped
(A) to be hurt
the last one.
, you mark it on the paper.
(B) correct (C) to correct
(D) correcting
is extremely dangerous.
(A) Cars at very high speeds driving
(B) At very high speeds driving cars
(C) Cars dciving at very high speeds
(D) Driving cars at very high speeds
Many countries are experiencing difficult problems in desert are~. Poor land is farmed until it
1.
, and trees are cut for firewood
2.
the soil against wind and rain.
Scientists do not understand all the problems of the deserts , but there have been many ideas for
3.
the land. Saudi Arabia has planted 10 million trees
4.
the sand from 5.
fertile areas.
The spread of the deserts affects most countries. The big question today is how can an
world population find food and space without
the desert is the only chance
9.
7.
the land it lives on. For many countries ,
starvation , destruction ,
10.
disaster.
1. (A) worn out
(B) is worn out
(C)has worn
(D)to worn
2. (A) to leave
(B) leaving
(C)left
(D)and left
3. (A) saving
(B) being saved
(C)saves
(D)to save
4. (A) to help keep
(B)help to keep
(C) to help keeping
(D)being taken off
5. (A) taking over
(B)taking off
(C) being taken over
(D)being taken off
6. (A) expanding
(B) expands
(C)expanded
(D)expand to
7. (A) to destroy
(B) destroying
(C)destruction
(D)destroyed
8.(A) battling
(B) battles
(C)to battles
(D)battled
9.(A) to avoid
(B) avoid
(C)avoided
(D)be avoided
10.(A)and
(B) else
(C)or
6.
(D)but
8.
Exercise on Participles
1. I become
after watching too much television.
(A) bored
2. I felt
(B) boring
(D) bores
by his interest in my new invention.
(A) encourage
3. He sat there
(A) read
(B)to encourage (C) was encouraged
(D) encouraged
a novel.
(B) reading
4. Don't wake up the
(A) sleep
(C) reads
(B) slept
(A) roll
(C) sleeping
6. The heavy rain kept us
(C) rolled
(D) rolls
for two hours.
(B) waited
7. I found a dog
(D) sleepy
stone gathers no moss. "
(B) rolling
(A) wait
(D) had read
child.
5. A proverb goes ; " A
(C) waiting
(D) to wait
over by a car on the road.
(A) to run
(B) run
8. We found the baby
(A) slept
(C) ran
(B) sleep
(A) stood
(C) asleep
(D) sleeping
near the dog, so he walked up to her.
(B) stands
10. They got their car
(A) be washed
(D) running
on the floor.
9. Jack saw a woman
11.
(C) bore
(C) to stand
(D) standing
at the garage.
(B) washed
(C) being washed
(D) to have been washed
with his report , I told him to write it all over again.
(A) Dissatisfactory
(B) Not being satisfied
(C) Having not satisfied
(D) Dissatisfying
12.
our shoes in our hands , we crossed the stream.
(A) To carry
13.
(B) Carrying
(C) Carried
(D) Carry
my homework , I went home.
(A) Having finished
(B) Finished
(C) Being finished
(D) Finish
14.
the door unlocked , I went in.
(A)Finding
15.
(B) Found
(C) Had found
(D) Have found
a careless fellow, he forgot all about it.
(A) Is
16.
(B) Be
(C) Being
(D) Was
carefully, this letter is very beautiful.
(A) Type
(B) Typing
(C) Typed
(D) To type
17.Animals can do many amazing things when properly
( A)train
(B)training
18. You must be careful when
(A)you driving
19.If
(C)to train
.
(D)to train
on the highway.
(B)are driving
(C)driving
(D)you were driving
,I will go to the party tonight.
(A)invite
(B)inviting
20. Thousands of products
(A) made
(D)invited'
from coal are now in daily use.
(B) make
21. Engines are machines
(A) produce
(C)to invite
(C) making
(D) to make
power or motion.
(B) producing
(C) produced
(D) which producing
22. During this battle some soldiers were wounded , and some
(A) miss
23. Weather
(A) permit
24.The vacation
(A)is
(B) missed
(C) missing
.
(D) to miss
, we will have a picnic tomorrow.
(B) permits
(C) permitted
(D) permittiri
over, the students came back to school.
(B)are
(C)was
(D)being
25 ,we left off our work.
(A)After setting the sun
(B)Haing set the sun
(C)The sun having set
(D)Being the sun set
26.The hotel room was so dirty that I was
(A)ashamed
(B)disgusted
27.The speaker found himself
(A)leave
(B)to leave
(C)disgusting
(C)leaving
(A)required
(B)to be required
30.In many modern cities, Beijing
(D)left
my cousin.
(B)resembling
29.Both history and geography are
(D)embarrassed
all alone.
28.In the airport I met a man
(A)who resembles
and complained to the manager.
(C)resembled
(D)to resemble
courses in our middle schools.
(C)requiring
(D)being required
,congestion and air pollution have become real
problems.
(A)includes
(B)include
31.He devoted his
(C)included
(D)including
five years to study and
(A)remaining/learning
(B)remained/learn
(C)remaining/learn
(D)remained/learning
32.
.
with the price of a fixed home today, mobile homes are truly
invite
(A)compared/economical
(C)compared/economic
33.
(B) comparing/economical
(D)comparing/economic
the painting, he gave a sigh of relief.
(A)Finishing
(B)Has finished
(C)Being finished
.
(D)Having finished
34.
by the roaring thunder, the baby burst out crying.
(A)To frighten (B)Frightening
35.
(C)Frighten
(D)Frightened
,he can quickly find out what is wrong with a television set and repair it.
(A)He has been well trained
(B)Has been well trained
(C)Having
(D)To have been well trained
been well trained
36.
by hunger, he stole a cake.
(A)Having driven
37.
(B)Driving
(C)Being driving
(D)Driven
the way to take, the traveller went on his yourney.]
(A)Telling
(B)Having told
(C)Having been told
(D)Have told
38.The United States has developed into a modern nation in a very short time
with many
other countries.
(A)compares
39.
(B)comparing
(C)to compare
(D)compared
, reports are prepared for busy administrators.
(A)To speak generally
(B)Generally speaking
(C)General spoken
(D)Speaking generally
40.The lesson
by the teacher this moring is an unusually long one.
(A)being assigned
While
1.
(B)assigning
(D)assigned
to the movies, I happened to see a terrible'i dent. A taxi
light collided with a truck. The
mediately. As the number of cars
1. (A) I go
(C)to be assigned
(B) going
3.
taxi driver was sent to hospital
5.
4.
2.
through a tra~c
at downtown area
, everyone has to strict; bey the traffic rules.
(C) went
2. (A) was run
(B) was running (C) running
3. (A) injuring
(B) injury
4. (A)location
(B) locates
5. (A) increase
(B) increasing
(C) injured
(C) locating
(C) increased
(D)to go
(D) which rui
(D) to injure
(D) located
(D) increases