* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

# Download study guide and review for first semester final

Marcus theory wikipedia , lookup

Process chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Electrochemistry wikipedia , lookup

Chemical thermodynamics wikipedia , lookup

Hypervalent molecule wikipedia , lookup

Photoredox catalysis wikipedia , lookup

Physical organic chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Electrolysis of water wikipedia , lookup

Multi-state modeling of biomolecules wikipedia , lookup

Transition state theory wikipedia , lookup

Biosynthesis wikipedia , lookup

Biochemistry wikipedia , lookup

Chemical reaction wikipedia , lookup

Chemical equilibrium wikipedia , lookup

Acid dissociation constant wikipedia , lookup

Nitrocellulose wikipedia , lookup

Acid strength wikipedia , lookup

Rate equation wikipedia , lookup

Photosynthetic reaction centre wikipedia , lookup

Thermometric titration wikipedia , lookup

Nucleophilic acyl substitution wikipedia , lookup

Bioorthogonal chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Nanofluidic circuitry wikipedia , lookup

Click chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Acid–base reaction wikipedia , lookup

Stoichiometry wikipedia , lookup

Petasis reaction wikipedia , lookup

STUDY GUIDE AND REVIEW FOR FIRST SEMESTER FINAL. 1. Review all vocabulary from all chapters. 2. Explain the origin of the Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin temperature scales and make conversions between scales. Ex. 20.0 o F = ____-6.67________ o C = ____266.33_______ K Ex. 35.0 o C = ____95________o F = ____308_______K (5/9) * (fahrenheit - 32) (9/5) * celsius + 32 3. Make conversions in the SI system and between the SI system and the English system. Ex. 356 m = _35600______cm = __356000____mm = _3.56 x 10-10_____Tm = _3.56 x 1014_____pm yotta- (Y-) 1024 1 septillion zetta- (Z-) 1021 1 sextillion exa- (E-) 1018 1 quintillion peta- (P-) 1015 1 quadrillion tera- (T-) 1012 1 trillion giga- (G-) 109 1 billion mega- (M-) 106 1 million kilo- (k-) 103 1 thousand hecto- (h-) 102 1 hundred deka- (da-)** 10 1 ten deci- (d-) 10-1 1 tenth centi- (c-) 10-2 1 hundredth milli- (m-) 10-3 1 thousandth micro- (µ-) 10-6 1 millionth nano- (n-) 10-9 1 billionth pico- (p-) 10-12 1 trillionth femto- (f-) 10-15 1 quadrillionth atto- (a-) 10-18 1 quintillionth zepto- (z-) 10-21 1 sextillionth yocto- (y-) 10-24 1 septillionth 4. Determine the number of significant figures a number has and use the correct number of significant figures when determining answers to calculations. Ex. .00908 has ___3__sig figures 23000 has ___2___ sig. figures 2.02 x .0023 = _______ (.0046) 1.001 + 6.1 + 2.5678 = ______ (9.7) 5. Express numbers in scientific notation, and convert numbers from scientific notation to standard nonexponential form. Ex. Express the following in scientific notation. .000000508 5.08 x 10-7 123000000 1.23 x 108 Ex. Express the following in standard nonexponential form. 1.23 x 105 123000 4.56 x 10-4 .000456 6. Make calculations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) when numbers are in scientific notation. Ex. (2.0 x 104) (3.0 x 10-2) 6.0 x 102 7. Perform calculations involving density. Ex. A solid has a mass of 54.0 g and volume of 35.0 g/cm3. Calculate its density . (1.54 g/cm3; 1.54) 8. Calculate the molar mass of any compound using the periodic table. Ex. HCl, NH4OH, CS2 9. Perform conversions similar to the following. Ex. 354 g of CH4 = _______moles Ex. 6.54 moles of NaOH = ____________ grams Ex. 4.00 molecules of CCl4 = ____________ atoms of Cl Ex. 6.54 moles of NH3 = ___________molecules Ex. 5.00 molecules of P = _______________grams of P (22.1) (262) (16.0) (3.94 x 1024) (2.57 x 10-22) 10. Use data obtained from quantitative analysis for the composition of a compound or from percentage composition to determine the compound’s empirical formula. Ex. A compound with 0.90 g Ca and 1.6 g Cl has what empirical formula? (CaCl2) Ex. A white powder used in paints, enamels and ceramics has the following percentage composition: Ba 69.6 %; C 6.09%; O 24.3 %. What is its empirical formula? (BaCO3) 11. Write and balance chemical equations (other than redox) and identify the reaction type as composition, decomposition, single replacement, or double replacement. Ex. potassium hydroxide + sulfuric acid ------> potassium sulfate + water 2KOH + H2SO4 K2SO4 + 2H2O Double replacement 12. Identify the limiting reagent in a reaction. Ex. How many grams of sodium nitrate can be formed when 10.0 g of sodium hydroxide is reacted with 20.0 g of nitric acid? Which reactant limits the reaction. ( NaOH, 15.8 g of nitric acid is needed) (21.3 g of sodium nitrate produced; 4.2 g of nitric acid in excess) 13. Define molarity and work problems involving the molarity of a solution. Ex. What is the molarity of a solution formed by dissolving 5.00 g of NaOH in 75.0 mL of water? (1.67 M) 14. Perform stoichiometric calculations with balanced equations when the reactants are solutions of know molarity. Ex. How many mL of 0.112 M HCl will react with the sodium carbonate in 21.2 mL of 0.150 M Na2CO3? (56.8 mL) 15. Define and be able to identify acids and bases from Arrhenius’, Bronsted - Lowrey’s and Lewis’ point of view. Ex. HC2H3O2 + H2O H3O+ + C2H3O2-1 Identify the Bronsted acids and bases and the conjugate acid - base pairs in the above equation B. acid = HC2H3O2 conj. Base= C2H3O2-1 B Base = H2O conj. Acid = H3O+ 17. Predict if metathesis occurs, explain why it occurs, and write ionic and net ionic equations for the reaction. Ex. Predict if the following reaction occurs. If so, explain why and write ionic and net ionic equations for the reaction. H2SO4 + 2 KOH K2SO4 + 2 H2O Yes because water is a product Net Ionic 2H+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) 2H2O(l) 18. Work stoichiometric problems using ionic equations. Ex. How many mL of 0.100 M AgNO3 solution are needed to react completely with 25.0 mL of 0.400 M CaCl2 solution? ( Ag+ + Cl- AgCl) 25.0mL x 0.400MCaCl2 x 2mol Clx 1mol Ag+ x 1mol AgNO3 x 1000ml 1000mL 1 mol CaCl2 1 mol Cl- 1mol Ag+ 0.100M AgNO3 = 200mL AgNO3 19. Work problems involving titration. Ex. 25.00 mL of HCl are titrated with 37.46 mL of 0.0775 M NaOH. What is the molarity of the HCl solution? 20. Be able to balance redox equations using the half reaction method. Ex. Cu + HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + NO + H2O 21. Be able to balance redox equations for basic or acidic reactions using the ion electron method. Ex. Cr2O7-2 + Fe+2 Cr+3 + Fe+3 (acid solution) Ex. SO3-2 + MnO4-1 SO4-2 + MnO2 (basic solution) 22. Using specific heat and heat capacity data as well as temperature changes that occur in a calorimeter, calculate the heat of a reaction. Ex. In a calorimeter containing 100 g of water, a reaction caused the temperature to rise 15.0 oC. How many Joules were given off? Convert the value to calories. Was the reaction endothermic or exothermic? (6270 J; 1499 cal) Ex. See sample problem on p. 279 23. Manipulate thermochemical equations so as to use Hess’s Law to find the value of Ho for a reaction for which H o might be hard or impossible to measure directly. Ex. See sample problems on p. 286 24. Use standard heats of formation to find the Ho of a reaction. Ex. See sample problems on p. 290