1. What is the nutrient? Selenium. 2. What is the RDA/DRI for the nutrient? Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Selenium Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation Birth to 6 months 15 mcg* 15 mcg* 7–12 months 3. 20 mcg* 20 mcg* 1–3 years 20 mcg 20 mcg 4–8 years 30 mcg 30 mcg 9–13 years 40 mcg 40 mcg 14–18 years 55 mcg 55 mcg 60 mcg 70 mcg 19–50 years 55 mcg 55 mcg 60 mcg 70 mcg 51+ years 55 mcg 55 mcg How is the nutrient metabolized? Absorption of selenium occurs in the duodenum and jejunum of the small intestine and occurs more readily in conditions of deficiency. Excess selenium is excreted via urine. In the body, selenium is stored as selenomethionine, and selenocysteine is the active form. Selenium is transported bound to albumin and then later to α2-globulin. 4. What are food sources of the nutrient? Foods Rich in Selenium Food Cals DRI/DV Tuna (4oz) 147 223% Shrimp (4oz) 135 102% Sardines (4oz) 189 86.9% Salmon (4oz) 158 78.3% Turkey (4oz) 167 62.2% 96 57.7% Chicken (4oz) 187 56.9% Lamb (4oz) 350 50.7% Scallops (4oz) 126 44.7% Beef (4oz) 133 43.5% Cod (4oz) 5. What disease states alter the nutrients metabolism? Crohn’s disease, Celiac disease, and other GI tract conditions, as well as the resection or surgical removal of parts of the GI tract can impair the absorption of Selenium. 6. What are the tests or procedures to assess the nutrient level in the body? Measure selenium or glutathione peroxidase amounts in serum, platelets, or erythrocytes or in whole blood. Urine samples and toenail clippings may also aid in selenium level assessment. 7. What is the drug –nutrient interactions? Using dimercaprol together with selenium can cause injury to the kidneys. Selenium may slow blood clotting. Taking selenium along with anticoagulant medications might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Taking selenium, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E together might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol. 8. How is the nutrient measured? The most commonly used measures of selenium status are plasma and serum selenium concentrations. Concentrations in blood and urine reflect recent selenium intake. Analyses of hair or nail selenium content can be used to monitor longer-term intakes over months or years. 9. What is the Upper Tolerable Limits? Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for Selenium Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation Birth to 6 months 45 mcg 45 mcg 7–12 months 60 mcg 60 mcg 1–3 years 90 mcg 90 mcg 4–8 years 150 mcg 150 mcg 9–13 years 280 mcg 280 mcg 14–18 years 400 mcg 400 mcg 400 mcg 400 mcg 19+ years 400 mcg 400 mcg 400 mcg 400 mcg 10. What are the physical signs of deficiency? Keshan disease, congestive cardiomyopathy caused by a combination of dietary deficiency of selenium and the presence of a mutated strain of Coxsackievirus. 11. What are physical signs of toxicity? Acute selenium toxicity can cause severe gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial infarction, hair loss, muscle tenderness, tremors, lightheadedness, facial flushing, kidney failure, cardiac failure, and, in rare cases, death. Works Cited Draper, Richard. "Selenium | Doctor | Patient.co.uk." Patient.co.uk. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014. <http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/Selenium.htm>. "Selenium." The World's Healthiest Foods. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. <http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?dbid=95&tname=nutrient#deficiencysymptoms>. "Selenium." Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: â€” Health Professional Fact Sheet. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014. <http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Selenium-HealthProfessional/>. "Selenium Effectiveness, Safety, and Drug Interactions on RxList." RxList. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014. <http://www.rxlist.com/selenium-page3/supplements.htm#Interactions>.