Nutrition Unit Nutrition Nutrition – is the study of food and how the body uses it. Protein Proteins- are the building blocks of your body. The cells of your body are made up of protein. They come from animal sources such as milk, eggs, meat, and fish. Some plants such as beans and grains are also a good source of protein. Proteins are composed of small building blocks called Amino Acids. There are combinations of 22 Amino Acids that form 100’s of different proteins. During digestion, the body breaks proteins down into Amino Acids. Your body produces 14 of the 22 Amino Acids. The other 8 you get from foods. These are called Essential Amino Acids. Food that contains all 8 essential Amino Acids are called complete proteins. They come from animal sources such as: meat, fish, milk, products. Foods that contain some but not all essential amino acids are called incomplete proteins. They can be found in nuts, rice, beans and other plants. Fats Fats provide energy. They give you twice as much energy as carbohydrates. Fats are found mainly in animal products, but fat is also found in some plant products such as nuts and vegetable oils. Fats are necessary for the growth and repair of cells. They dissolve certain vitamins and carry them to the cells where they are needed. Saturated Fats Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Saturated fats come mostly from animal products such as lard, butter, milk and meat. Unsaturated fats come mostly from plants such as sunflowers, corn, soya beans, olives and peanuts. Four (4) Types of Dietary Fats 1. Monounsaturated = Lowers LDL (Bad Cholesterol) and raises HDL (Good Cholesterol), Good Fat. Food that Monounsaturated Fats are found in: Nuts, Seeds, and Avocado. 2. Polyunsaturated = Lowers LDL (Bad Cholesterol), Good Fat: Food that Polyunsaturated Fats are found in: Omega 3 Fats such as Flax Seed, Soybean Oil, Fish, and Canola Oil. 3. Saturated = usually raises LDL (Bad Cholesterol), Bad Fat: Food that contains Saturated Fats are: Red meat, Poultry with the Skin, Whole Milk and Butter. 4. Trans Fat = Raises LDL, (Bad Cholesterol) Lowers HDL (Good Cholesterol, Bad Fat: Are worse than saturated fats. Food that contains Trans Fat are: Margarine stick, Fried Fast Foods such as French Fries, Burgers etc., Baked Goods such as Doughnuts. Increase the risk of Inflammation, Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes. Look for words on labels that read: hydrogenated, partially hydrogenated, and shortening which mean Trans Fat. Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy fat like substance found in saturated fats of animal cells, including humans. You produce cholesterol and you eat food that contains cholesterol. Too much cholesterol can cause atherosclerosis and other heart diseases. LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein): is bad cholesterol. HDL (High Density Lipoprotein): is good cholesterol. LDL builds up on the artery walls and HDL takes the LDL out. Sodium Sodium is a substance that is found in salt. Sodium in salt can be harmful to your health. All types of salt are high in sodium. Kosher salt, sea salt, gourmet salt and smoked salt all have about the same amount of sodium as table salt. They are not the healthier choices. Over 75% of sodium we eat comes from processed foods such as cheese, pizza, deli meats, sauces and soups. Packaged foods, ready-to-eat foods, fast foods and restaurant meals are often high in sodium. Breads, breakfast cereals and bakery products also contain sodium even though they may not taste salty. Small amounts of sodium occur naturally in healthy foods such as milk, vegetables, fresh meat and fish. Sodium helps to balance fluids and electrolytes in our bodies. A product that is low in sodium is 140 mg or less per serving. We all need some sodium, but most of us eat about 3400 mg of sodium per day. This is more than double the amount of sodium we need. Healthy adults need only 1500 mg of sodium per day. Healthy children need only 1000-1500 mg of sodium per day. Eating less sodium can help you and your family stay healthy and feel your best. Too much leads to high blood pressure, hypertension, heart attack and stroke. Sugar We consume an enormous amount of sugar, whether consciously or not, but it is largely a misunderstood substance. There are different kinds and different ways your body processes them all. Some consider it poison and others believe it’s the sweetest thing on earth. There are too many types of sugars (and, of course, sugar substitutes) to tackle in nutrition so we are going to look at two that you regularly encounter and they are glucose and fructose. Glucose is a simple sugar that body likes. Your cells use it as a primary source of energy, so when you consume glucose, it is actually helpful. When it is transported into the body, it stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin. Your brain notices this increase, understands that it is busy metabolizing what you just ate, and tells you that you are less hungry. The important thing to note here is that when you consume glucose, your brain knows to tell you to stop eating when you have had enough. But, glucose is not perfect. There are many processes involved when you consume glucose, but one that occurs in your liver produces something called very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). You do not want VLDL. It causes problems such as cardiovascular disease. Fortunately, there are only 1 out of the 24 calories from glucose that are processed by the liver turn into VLDL. Fructose and sucrose is the same thing because they are both highly sweet and they both contain large amount of sugar substitutes. Sucrose is 50% fructose and HFCS (High Fructose Corn Syrup) is 55% fructose (which is high compared to normal corn syrup, but pretty normal when compared to sugar cane). The remainder of each is glucose, which we already discussed. In most cases, fructose is bad for you because of how it is processed by the body. Fructose can only be metabolized by the liver, which is not a good thing. This means a greater number of calories about 3 times more than glucose are going through liver processes and that results in a much higher production of VLDL (the bad cholesterol and fat. It also results in a higher production of uric acid and a lot of other things you do not want which is believed to lead to stuff like hypertension and high blood pressure. On top of that, fructose consumption negatively changes the way your brain recognizes your consumption. This is because your brain resists leptin which is the protein that is vital for regulating energy intake and expenditure (which includes keeping your appetite in check and your metabolism working efficiently. As a result you keep eating without necessarily realizing you are full. For example, a soda containing high amounts of fructose (which is most non-diet sodas) will do little to make you think you are full even though you are taking large amounts of calories. You brain does not get the message that you really consumed much of anything and so it still thinks that you are hungry. Fruit contains fructose, but as any food pyramid suggested intake ratios will tell you the USDA’s new food plate focuses on a more balanced diet, fruit is okay. This is because fruit, in its natural form, contains fibre. Fructose does not provide an alert to let your brain know to tell you to stop eating, but fibre does this to a very high degree. This is why you can eat fruit despite the fructose content without experiencing the same problems as drinking sugary soda. The same goes for processed sugar. Sugar does not exist naturally as sparkly white crystals, but as really touch sticks called sugar cane. It is not until you process the sugar cane that you lose all the fibre it contains. Without the fibre, you only have the tasty but problematic part of the original food. That’s why processed sugars can cause problems. Remember the purpose of processing food is not for immediate eating it is for shipping all over the country or even the world. To do this you obviously cannot let the food expire or it will be useless when it arrives. Because fibre causes the food to go bad much faster it needs to be removed. Additionally, many processed foods are even worse off because of their low fat content. Low fat content sounds good, but just because you eat fat does not mean you retain it. Your body can efficiently process and excrete fat, so fat intake is not a huge issue. Nonetheless, the past 40 years have brought us a low fat craze. Fresh food can still taste good without a higher fat content, but processing low fat food makes it taste like crap. As a result companies add a bunch of sugar (and often salt) to fix the problem. This process essentially exchanges fat your body can actually use for fructose – produced fat that it cannot. Sugared beverages (soda pop) or processed drinks contain high amounts of fructose and high amounts of sodium as well. Coke is a great example. These types of beverage contain sodium that causes you to be thirsty and prompts you to buy more soda to drink and makes you pee so you feel that you need to drink more. So they add fructose to the soda to mask the taste of the sodium. Soda contains no nutrients what so ever. Avoid buying pre-packaged dinners whenever you can. Buy foods with more fibre. They are likely to expire faster, which means, more trips to the grocery store. The recommend amount of processed sugar per day that we should put in our body is 40 grams or 10 teaspoons. The recommended daily sugar intake for men is 36 grams or 9 teaspoons. The recommended daily sugar intake for women is 20 grams or 5 teaspoons. The recommended daily sugar intake for children is 12 grams or 3 teaspoons. Water Water is the single most important nutrient. Your body weight is 60% to 70% water. You lose 2 to 3 litres of water a day and this must be replaced in foods and liquids. Water helps regulate the body temperature. It is also needed for chemical reactions that occur in cells. Water carries nutrients to the cells and removes waste. Minerals Minerals provide no energy and provide no calories. They regulate the activity of the cells. Small amounts are essential for good health. Functions and Sources of Minerals Minerals Function in the Body Food Source Calcium builds strong bones and Cheese and Milk Teeth Phosphorus helps release energy from Meat, Poultry, Fish nutrients. Magnesium Sodium breaks down glucose and Green vegetables, grains, Proteins regulates fluid and nuts regulates internal water Table salt and most food Balance and helps nerves Potassium Iron regulates fluid balance Oranges, bananas and in cells potatoes helps transfer oxygen Liver, red meat, shellfish in red blood cells Zinc helps transport carbon Meat, shellfish, and dioxide, helps heal wounds whole grains Vitamins Vitamins are needed for growth and repair of body cells. They have no calories and provide no energy. Some are water soluble and some are fat soluble. Vitamin B and Vitamin C are water soluble and should be eaten every day. Functions and Sources of Vitamins Vitamin Function in Body Food Source B1 (Thiamin) helps release energy from Carbohydrates Pork, legumes, milk, meat B2 (Riboflavin) helps breakdown carbo- Eggs and green Hydrates vegetables helps release energy from Milk, meat, whole Carbohydrates and protein grain helps in formation of Fruits, tomatoes and Hormones, bone tissue potatoes helps produce normal Butter, margarine, Mucus liver and eggs helps absorb calcium Liver, fortified milk Niacin C (Ascorbic Acid) A (Retinol) D Phosphorus K helps in blood clotting Leafy vegetables E (Tocopherol) prevents damage to Vegetable oil Membranes and vitamin A Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are nutrients that provide you with energy. Simple carbohydrates are sugar that is used by your body with little or no change in digestion. Examples are fruits, honey, molasses, and milk. Complex carbohydrates contain more of the other nutrients then do simple carbohydrates. They are nutriently dense. They have a large number of nutrients for the calories they provide. Fibre Fibre is a type of carbohydrate that your body cannot digest. It supplies no energy. Sources of fibre are leaves, stems, roots, seed coverings of fruit, vegetables and grains, whole wheat and whole grain bread, and unskinned fruit are examples. If you eat plenty of fibre it will reduce the risk of getting some types of cancer. Fibre helps remove cancer causing agents from the body; helps to lower Cholesterol levels; expands in your stomach to make a person feel full. It is a complex carbohydrate that has no energy which means no calories. Fibre also helps to keep you regular. Examples of Fibre enriched foods: Fibre 1 products (cereals) most berries, all types of bran, wholesome whole grains, pears, apples, mangos, prunes other fruits and vegetables. Women should have at least 20-25 grams of Fibre daily. Men should have at least 30-35 grams of Fibre each day. Body Fat What percentage of body fat should men and women have? Body fat percentages mean different things on different levels. Five percent body fat can cause serious health problems for the average person. Conversely 25% body fat can either be healthy or unhealthy depending on your age and gender. Healthy body fat percentage for men and women is quite different. Women should have a higher percentage of body fat than men. Women are healthier with a higher percentage of body fat. This is because women require higher fat levels for safe pregnancy. For women between the age of 20 -40, 19% to 26% body fat is generally good to excellent. For women age 40+ to 60+, 23% to 30% is considered good to excellent. For men between the age of 20-40, 10% to 20% body fat is generally good to excellent. For men age 40+ to 60+, 19% to 23%. ** Use the Fat machine calculator and BMI (Body Mass Index) and the website. The website gives you information on what you should have for a percentage of body fat and the machine tells you exactly what you are at for percentage of body fat.