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Chapter 8: Nutrition
A. Digestive System
1. Mouth
2. Esophagus
3. Stomach
4. Small Intestine
5. Large Intestine
6. Accessory Organs
a. Pancreas
b. Liver
c. Gallbladder
B. My Pyramid Plan
1. Grains, Vegetables, Fruits, Oils, Milk/Dairy,
Meats and Beans
2. Exercise
3. Age and Gender –how many calories a day
C. Reading a Food Label
Ingredients List
Number of Servings per Container
Number of Calories per Serving
Percentage of Daily Values
D. Health Claims
1. Free: contains less than 0.5 g fat
2. Low in: contains less than 40 calories
3. High in: one serving provides 20% or more of DV
4. Light: contains 50% less fat or at least 1/3 fewer calories
5. Excellent source of: on serving provides 20% or more of the DV
6. May reduce your risk of heart disease: appear on fiber-containing grain products
E. Nutrients
1. Nutrients: substances that promote growth, regulate bodily functions, repair body
tissues and obtain energy (carbs, fats, proteins – source of energy)
Metabolism: process by which your body breaks down food to release energy
Calorie: the amount of energy released when nutrients are broken down
2. Carbohydrates:
a. Use: energy supply
b. Simple: found naturally in fruits, vegetables, milk, added to cookies,
candy, sodas
Artificial sweeteners: non-caloric sweeteners, not broken down by body
Complex: long chains of sugar found in potatoes, grains, pasta; sugar
(glucose) stored in liver as glycogen, when glycogen storage is full it is
converted to fat
Fiber: complex carb found in plants; cannot be broken down, no
nutritional value, prevent constipation, decrease risk of colon cancer,
prevent heart disease, make you feel full
c. Daily intake: complex = 60%, simple/refined sugars = in moderation, fiber
= 25 grams
d. Problems:
 Diabetes I: pancreas does no produce insulin, body has high blood
sugar need insulin injections
 Diabetes II: elevated blood sugar, insulin resistance, can be controlled
by diet
 Hypoglycemia: abnormally low blood sugar; fatigue, weakness,
dizziness, anxiety, sweating
 Obesity: body mass index of 30+; excess carbs are converted to fat
3. Fats:
a. Use (9 calories in 1 gram): supply the body with energy, form your cells,
maintain body temperature, protect nerves
b. Unsaturated: liquid at room temp; help fight heart disease by raising good
cholesterol (olive oil, corn, vegetable, nuts, seeds)
Saturated: solid at room temperature; found in animal products (meats,
dairy, butter, and lard
Cholesterol: waxy fat-like substance found only in animal products; not a
necessary part of your diet because the liver can make all necessary
cholesterol for tissue, hormones and chemicals that aid in digestion of fat
(LDL = bad, carry fat out of the liver; HDL = good, carry fat to the liver)
Trans fat: when unsaturated fats (liquid) become altered by hydrogenation
and become solid; raise LDL and lower HDL (margarine, baked good, fried
c. Daily intake: 20-35% unsaturated
d. Problems:
 High Cholesterol: elevated cholesterol or LDL in the blood
 Arteriosclerosis: build up of cholesterol/LDL in arteries that could
lead to clots
 Heart Attacks: blockage of the arteries that supply the heart; deprive
the heart itself of blood (portion of the heart starts to die)
 Stroke: blocked or burst artery in the brain from cholesterol build up
causing brain damage
 Deficiencies in brain development: fatty build up in the brain (Tay
Sach’s disease)
4. Proteins: made of long chains of amino acids
a. Use: enzymes, antibodies, carry oxygen, tendons, ligaments, muscle, scar
tissue, bones, teeth, hair, nails
 Can be used for energy when carbohydrates or fats are deficient
b. Essential amino acids: nine amino acids that must come from your diet;
your body cannot manufacture these
Complete protein: protein from animal sources that contains the essential
amino acids
Incomplete protein: protein from plant sources (beans) that lacks some of
the essential amino acids
c. Daily intake: 4-9 oz of nuts, peas or lean meats, 2-3 servings of low fat or
fat free dairy
d. Problems:
 Deficiency:
i. Hunger: stunted growth, poor healing
5. Vitamins:
a. Use: help with digestion, absorption and metabolism
b. Types: A, B, D, C & E (antioxidants), K [fat-soluble, water-soluble]
c. Deficiencies: blindness, scurvy, beriberi, rickets
6. Minerals:
a. Use: help to balance the water content of cells, build structures in the body,
involved in muscle contraction, act as electrolytes to maintain the water
balance and maintain and acid-base balance
 Imbalance can cause HBP, muscle cramping, anemia, tooth decay
b. Types: Ca, Fe, Na, Fl
c. Problems: Deficiencies – osteoporosis, tooth decay, anemia
7. Water: universal solvent – dissolves many substances needed by the cell
a. Use: carries materials to and from the cell, acts as a lubricant and cushions
joints, maintains body temperature, makes up 60% of body weight,
cleansing agent, involved in metabolism
b. Daily intake: (10) 8 oz cups a day
c. Dehydration: reduction in the body’s water content; symptoms include
weakness, rapid breathing, weak heartbeat
F. Proper Nutrition
1. Low fat, high fiber
2. Fruits and vegetables
3. Lean protein
4. Water
5. Exercise (30-60 minutes/day)
a. Components of Fitness
 Cardiorespiratory
 Muscle strengthening
 Muscle endurance
 Flexibility
 Body composition