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Transcript
Chapter
5
Nutrition
Learning Objectives
• Differentiate important nutritional
terminology.
• Identify food sources that fulfill
nutritional needs.
• Identify health consequences of poor
nutrition.
• Identify nutritional guidelines.
(continued)
Learning Objectives
• Learn how to use the Food Guide
Pyramid.
• Learn how to read nutritional labels.
• Learn how to eat well.
Definitions
Kilocalorie—Units of heat that measure
the energy in food. A kilocalorie is actually
1,000 calories, but most people simplify
the term to just calories and the two
terms are used interchangeably.
(continued)
Definitions
Carbohydrates—Compounds consisting
of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The
primary function of most carbohydrates
is to provide energy for the body.
• Simple: The smallest form of carbohydrate,
also referred to as sugars. They occur
naturally in milk, fruits, and other plant foods.
• Complex: Commonly referred to as starches
and fiber. They consist of hundreds of simple
carbohydrates linked together.
(continued)
Definitions
Proteins—Consisting of carbon, oxygen,
hydrogen, and nitrogen, proteins are a
component of every living cell. Amino
acids are the building blocks of proteins;
the number and order of amino acids
determines the types of protein.
(continued)
Definitions
Fats—Compound consisting of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen that do not dissolve
in water.
• Saturated—Type of fatty acid generally
linked to an increased risk of elevated blood
cholesterol.
• Unsaturated—Monounsaturated fats have
been shown to reduce “bad” cholesterol
levels while leaving “good” cholesterol levels
the same. Polyunsaturated fats have been
found to reduce both types of cholesterol.
• Cholesterol—A fatlike substance found in
the body’s cells and bloodstream.
(continued)
Definitions
Vitamins—Food compounds that are
needed in small amounts to regulate
various metabolic reactions.
Minerals—Chemical elements such as
calcium, iron, and sodium that are
essential for numerous body processes
and structures.
(continued)
Definitions
Water—The most abundant component
of the human body; it transports nutrients
to cells, carries away waste products,
helps regulate body temperature, and
acts as a shock absorber in joints and
around other tissues.
Caffeine—A natural stimulant found in
commonly consumed foods such as
coffee, tea, and chocolate that causes the
heart rate to increase slightly, may
elevate blood pressure, and can enhance
alertness in some people.
(continued)
Definitions
Alcohol—Like caffeine, alcohol is not a
nutrient. If used in moderation, it doesn’t
appear to be detrimental to health, and it
may even slightly reduce risk of heart
disease. Consuming alcoholic beverages
can be detrimental to athletic training and
performance because it can cause
excessive fluid loss.
• Soluble fibers—one type of complex
carbohydrate found in fruits, oats, and legumes—
help reduce blood cholesterol levels.
• Most American eat more protein than they need.
Protein intake should be 10%-15% of total
calories.
• Most Americans eat more fat than they need. Try
to limit your fat intake to 30% of your total
calories per day and saturated fat intake to less
than 10% of your total daily calories.
• Eating a balanced diet should ensure that you eat
the recommended daily amounts of vitamins and
minerals.
Recommendations for
Good Health and Athletic
Performance
• Carbohydrates
• Proteins
• Fats
• Vitamins and minerals
• Water
Osteoporosis
• Osteoporosis is the disease that
causes bones to become so brittle that
they break.
• It mostly shows up in older adults,
especially women, but starts at a
much younger age.
• Up until age 30 you add more
calcium than you lose; after age 30,
you begin to lose more than you add.
(continued)
Osteoporosis
• Eat at least three servings of calciumrich dairy products each day.
• Calcium-fortified orange juice and
some cereals are good for people who
cannot tolerate milk products.
• Some people, especially older
women, may need to take calcium
supplements.
• Stay active. Any weight-bearing activity
will help improve bone density and
keep your bones healthy.
Nutritional Guidelines
The Food
Pyramid
The foundation for a healthy
diet lies in the bread, cereal,
rice, and pasta group and the
vegetable and fruit groups.
The “Five-a-Day”
Campaign
• A public health promotion launched
in the mid-1990s.
• Encouraged people to eat at least
three servings of vegetables and
two servings of fruits per day.
• Today most Americans eat only
3.5 servings of vegetables and
fruits per day.
Reading
Nutrition
Labels
Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 3/4 cup
Servings Per Container about 15
Amount Per Serving
Calories 130
Total Fat 3g
Saturated Fat 0.5g
Cholesterol 0mg
Sodium 180mg
Total Carbohydrate 24g
Dietary Fiber 1g
Sugars 7g
Calories from Fat 25
% Daily value*
5%
3%
0%
8%
8%
6%
Protein 3g
Vitamin A 15% • Vitamin C 0% • Iron 15%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your
daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie
needs:
Calories
2,000
2,500
Total Fat
Less than
65g
80g
Sat Fat
Less than
20g
25g
Cholesterol
Less than
300mg
300mg
Sodium
Less than
2,400mg
2,400mg
Total Carbohydrate
300mg
375mg
Dietary Fiber
25g
30g
Vegetarianism
• Semi-vegetarian—includes some,
but not all, animal products
• Lacto-ovo vegetarian—excludes all
meat and flesh foods but includes
milk products and eggs
• Lacto vegetarian—excludes all meat
and flesh foods and eggs; includes
milk products
• Vegan—excludes all animal foods
Most vegetarian diets can be
quite healthy if adequate care is
taken. Because vegetarians
consume less fat and
cholesterol than nonvegetarians,
they are less likely to develop
coronary disease.
Nutrition Tips
• Cooking
• Dinner
• Breakfast
• Snacking
• Lunch
• Eating out
You can eat healthful meals
when you eat out by
watching your calorie, fat,
and sodium intake.