Chapter 5 Nutrition Learning Objectives • Differentiate important nutritional terminology. • Identify food sources that fulfill nutritional needs. • Identify health consequences of poor nutrition. • Identify nutritional guidelines. (continued) Learning Objectives • Learn how to use the Food Guide Pyramid. • Learn how to read nutritional labels. • Learn how to eat well. Definitions Kilocalorie—Units of heat that measure the energy in food. A kilocalorie is actually 1,000 calories, but most people simplify the term to just calories and the two terms are used interchangeably. (continued) Definitions Carbohydrates—Compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The primary function of most carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body. • Simple: The smallest form of carbohydrate, also referred to as sugars. They occur naturally in milk, fruits, and other plant foods. • Complex: Commonly referred to as starches and fiber. They consist of hundreds of simple carbohydrates linked together. (continued) Definitions Proteins—Consisting of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, proteins are a component of every living cell. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins; the number and order of amino acids determines the types of protein. (continued) Definitions Fats—Compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that do not dissolve in water. • Saturated—Type of fatty acid generally linked to an increased risk of elevated blood cholesterol. • Unsaturated—Monounsaturated fats have been shown to reduce “bad” cholesterol levels while leaving “good” cholesterol levels the same. Polyunsaturated fats have been found to reduce both types of cholesterol. • Cholesterol—A fatlike substance found in the body’s cells and bloodstream. (continued) Definitions Vitamins—Food compounds that are needed in small amounts to regulate various metabolic reactions. Minerals—Chemical elements such as calcium, iron, and sodium that are essential for numerous body processes and structures. (continued) Definitions Water—The most abundant component of the human body; it transports nutrients to cells, carries away waste products, helps regulate body temperature, and acts as a shock absorber in joints and around other tissues. Caffeine—A natural stimulant found in commonly consumed foods such as coffee, tea, and chocolate that causes the heart rate to increase slightly, may elevate blood pressure, and can enhance alertness in some people. (continued) Definitions Alcohol—Like caffeine, alcohol is not a nutrient. If used in moderation, it doesn’t appear to be detrimental to health, and it may even slightly reduce risk of heart disease. Consuming alcoholic beverages can be detrimental to athletic training and performance because it can cause excessive fluid loss. • Soluble fibers—one type of complex carbohydrate found in fruits, oats, and legumes— help reduce blood cholesterol levels. • Most American eat more protein than they need. Protein intake should be 10%-15% of total calories. • Most Americans eat more fat than they need. Try to limit your fat intake to 30% of your total calories per day and saturated fat intake to less than 10% of your total daily calories. • Eating a balanced diet should ensure that you eat the recommended daily amounts of vitamins and minerals. Recommendations for Good Health and Athletic Performance • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Fats • Vitamins and minerals • Water Osteoporosis • Osteoporosis is the disease that causes bones to become so brittle that they break. • It mostly shows up in older adults, especially women, but starts at a much younger age. • Up until age 30 you add more calcium than you lose; after age 30, you begin to lose more than you add. (continued) Osteoporosis • Eat at least three servings of calciumrich dairy products each day. • Calcium-fortified orange juice and some cereals are good for people who cannot tolerate milk products. • Some people, especially older women, may need to take calcium supplements. • Stay active. Any weight-bearing activity will help improve bone density and keep your bones healthy. Nutritional Guidelines The Food Pyramid The foundation for a healthy diet lies in the bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group and the vegetable and fruit groups. The “Five-a-Day” Campaign • A public health promotion launched in the mid-1990s. • Encouraged people to eat at least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits per day. • Today most Americans eat only 3.5 servings of vegetables and fruits per day. Reading Nutrition Labels Nutrition Facts Serving Size 3/4 cup Servings Per Container about 15 Amount Per Serving Calories 130 Total Fat 3g Saturated Fat 0.5g Cholesterol 0mg Sodium 180mg Total Carbohydrate 24g Dietary Fiber 1g Sugars 7g Calories from Fat 25 % Daily value* 5% 3% 0% 8% 8% 6% Protein 3g Vitamin A 15% • Vitamin C 0% • Iron 15% *Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs: Calories 2,000 2,500 Total Fat Less than 65g 80g Sat Fat Less than 20g 25g Cholesterol Less than 300mg 300mg Sodium Less than 2,400mg 2,400mg Total Carbohydrate 300mg 375mg Dietary Fiber 25g 30g Vegetarianism • Semi-vegetarian—includes some, but not all, animal products • Lacto-ovo vegetarian—excludes all meat and flesh foods but includes milk products and eggs • Lacto vegetarian—excludes all meat and flesh foods and eggs; includes milk products • Vegan—excludes all animal foods Most vegetarian diets can be quite healthy if adequate care is taken. Because vegetarians consume less fat and cholesterol than nonvegetarians, they are less likely to develop coronary disease. Nutrition Tips • Cooking • Dinner • Breakfast • Snacking • Lunch • Eating out You can eat healthful meals when you eat out by watching your calorie, fat, and sodium intake.