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Name ______________________________ Honors Biochemistry Date ____________ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%201 01%20Lectures/Biochemistry/biochemi.htm 1. What are some aspects of carbon’s bonding ability and its possible structures that make it the basis for all biological systems? 2. What is the difference between polar and nonpolar molecules? 3. Why are nonpolar molecules hydrophobic? Why are polar molecules hydrophilic? 4. What is the purpose of functional groups? 5. When examining a condensation reaction in biological molecules such as glucose and fructose, what enables the molecules to come together? 6. How does dehydration synthesis occur? 7. Compare the macromolecules to the monomers. Complete the chart below. Example of Macromolecule Corresponding Monomer polysaccharide Glycerol, fatty acid protein Nucleic acid CARBOHYDRATES: http://www2.nl.edu/jste/carbohyd.htm#dehydration%20synthesis 1. 2. 3. 4. What are the three main functions of carbohydrates? Why is glucose known as the energy molecule? List and describe 3 disaccharides. List and describe 4 polysaccharides. http://biomodel.uah.es/en/model3/index.htm Monosaccharides: single sugar units 1. Using the above website: Click GLUCOSE to see the model. Glucose is a ____________ (having 6 carbon atoms). Use your mouse to move the molecule around. FATS: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/obesity/obesity_molecular/01.html 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Describe the four functions of fat. What are the two different compositions of fat droplets? What are the 5 types of lipids? Draw a triglyceride (using draw tools) and label the parts. How is a saturated fat different from a saturated fat? 6. HDL’s are considered “good” cholesterol whereas LDL’s are considered “bad” cholesterol. What are the consequences of hydrogenation in regards to cholesterol? 7. Using the FAT SUMMARY chart, how do you think the shape of the fat carbon chain effect its properties at room temperature and its impact on the human body. 8. What are the various functions of cholesterol? 9. What is the significance of a phospholipid molecule? STEROIDS: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cholesterol/c holesterol.htm 1. View the “overview” button on this link. Besides its role in the cause of heart disease, name four useful functions of cholesterol in the body 2. View the “Heart Disease” button on this link. List two reasons why bad cholesterol can elevate in a person. Why can’t a person remove LDL from the blood when they are genetically predisposed? How does exercise help? PROTEINS: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%201 01%20Lectures/Biochemistry/biochemi.htm Scroll down to Proteins: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why is protein such an important macromolecule for living things? What is an enzyme and how do they work? What are the 5 basic components of an amino acid? How does a peptide bond relate to a polypeptide? Proteins can be small or large. The larger they get causes them to fold. List and DESCRIBE the four types of structures in which they can fold. Since they are held in this folded place by hydrogen bonds, what is it called when you heat a protein and ruin its structure? NUCLEIC ACIDS: 1. What does your DNA look like? Take a tour: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/ 2. Go through the tutorial and answer the following questions: a. Where is DNA located? b. DNA coils into X shapes called what? c. The DNA has three main parts. What are they? d. How are the bases in the double helix connected? e. Explain the link between bases, genes, and proteins. f.