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Nutrients
Definition and Description
-chemical substances that the
body needs for energy, growth and
repair of tissue, and regulation of
functions.
carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
vitamins, minerals, water
Carbohydrates
• Foods that furnish energy
• Simple
• Sugars
» Syrups, molasses, processed sugars, whites
» Fruits and vegetables
• Complex
• Starches
– Whole grains
Protein
• Builds and repairs tissue
• Amino Acids – building blocks of protein
• High Quality – animal foods
• Low Quality – plant foods
LOW quality + LOW quality = HIGH quality
Fats
• Foods that furnish energy
• Provides storage for some vitamins
• Types (3)
• Saturated
» Solid at room temperature
» Allows cholesterol to build in the blood vessels
» Example: animal lard
Fats
•unsaturated fats:
•fats that are liquid at room temp.
•help remove cholesterol from the bloodstream
•Ex: oils
•trans fat
(partially hydrogenated oils)
•created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to
liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid.
•increases the risk of coronary heart disease
Minerals
• Needed to help regulate the body’s
functions
• Ex:
Calcium, iron, potassium,
phosphorus, sodium
Vitamins
• Needed to help regulate the body’s
functions
• Water soluble:
» Needed to be taken everyday
» Can not be scored
•Fat soluble
•Can be stored in muscles and adipose tissue.
Water
• What is the amount of water we should be drinking?
6-8 glasses
• 70-75% of our bodies are made of water.
• All food products have water molecules in them.
Fiber:
•Provides roughage
•Aids in the digestive process
•Found in: fruits, vegetables, grains
Cholesterol:
•Not a fat
•Waxy substance produced by the body and found in
animal foods
•High levels will increase the risk for heart disease
•LDL’s, and HDL’s
Eating Habits
• Why do you eat?
•
•
•
•
•
Hunger
Boredom
Memory of pleasant experience
Taste
Time to eat
Appetite
• Psychological reason for eating
•
•
•
•
•
Tastes good
Boredom
Looks good
Time to eat
Memory of pleasant experience
• Usually results in excessive calories.
Hunger
• Physiological reason for eating
• Survival
• Stomach pangs
• Need for nutrients
• Results in adequate nutrient replacement.
Body Mass Index
• an assessment of your weight relative to
your height
• used to determine future risk of disease
• does not take into account your body
composition.
• not a good indicator for children and
teenagers
(aloriesperhour.com)
Body Mass Index
Men
BMI Less than 20.7
Women
Risk Factor
BMI Less than 19.1 Underweight. lower BMI = greater risk
20.7 to 26.4
19.1 to 25.8
Normal, very low risk
26.4 to 27.8
25.8 to 27.3
Marginally overweight, some risk
27.8 to 31.1
27.3 to 32.2
Overweight. moderate risk
31.1 to 45.4
32.3 to 44.8
Severe overweight, high risk
Greater than 44.8
Morbid obesity, very high risk
Greater than 45.4
Understanding Nutrition by Whitney
and Rolfes
Body Composition
• % body fat
• DEXA (X-ray technique)
• Underwater weighing
• Skin fold measurement