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Transcript
BI 200 - Exam #1A
Spring 2002
Name
Lab Section. Seat#
Disclaimer
Consider each question, and answer each in the appropriate format (e.g., multiple choice).
You may qualify your answer if you have reservations. If your comments have merit,
you may receive partial or full credit. Questions are 1 point each unless indicated.
Introduction/Seven types of microorganisms
1. A yeast cell measures 0.010 mm in diameter. How many m is that?
2. Which of the following is not a type of archaea?
a.
b.
c.
d.
extreme thermophile
methanogen
halophile
ciliate
3. You observe a specimen under your microscope that is 0.4 mm in length, has mouth
parts, legs, and wings. It is an example of a(n)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
bacterium
protozoan
fungus
archaean
metazoan
4. E. coli is about _______ in length.
a.
b.
c.
d.
0.2 m
0.2 mm
2 m
2 mm
5. The E. coli chromosome contains about _________ genes
a.
b.
c.
d.
4
4,000
4.5 x 106
4.5 x 109
BI 200 - Exam #1B
Spring 2002
Name
Lab Section. Seat#
Disclaimer
Consider each question, and answer each in the appropriate format (e.g., multiple choice).
You may qualify your answer if you have reservations. If your comments have merit,
you may receive partial or full credit. Questions are 1 point each unless indicated.
Introduction/Seven types of microorganisms
1. You measure a microbe to be 150 m in length. How many mm is that?
2. Which of the following is not a type of archaea?
a.
b.
c.
d.
extreme thermophile
cyanobacterium
halophile
methanogen
3. You observe a specimen under your microscope that is 0.4 mm in length, has mouth
parts, legs, and wings. It is an example of a(n)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
bacterium
protozoan
fungus
archaean
metazoan
4. E. coli is about _______ in length.
a.
b.
c.
d.
0.2 m
0.2 mm
2 m
2 mm
5. The E. coli chromosome contains about _________ base pairs.
a.
b.
c.
d.
4
4,000
4.5 x 106
4.5 x 109
6. Which of the following is not an attribute of all living things?
a. Metabolism
c. Growth
b. Motility
d. Communication
7. Indicate (yes/no) for each type of microorganism if it contains a nucleus. 3 pts
_____ Archaea
______ Protozoa
______ Virus
_____ Fungus
______ Bacteria
_____ Algae
8. What are the names of the following coding functions of the cell? Choices: DNA
Replication, Transcription, Translation, Sporulation. 1.5 points
Synthesis of proteins
______________________
Making a new copy of the chromosome
______________________
Synthesizing mRNA molecules
______________________
9. Which of the three lines of descent include microscopic representatives? (yes/no)
1.5 pts
Archaea _______
Bacteria _______
Eukaryotes ________
History of Microbiology
10. Who was the first person to study microorganisms in detail using a microscope?
11. What technique did Pasteur invent in order to control the growth of microorganisms?
12. What are the four steps or tests a microbe must pass in order for it to be shown to
cause a disease? (What are Koch’s postulates?) 4 points
1.
2.
3.
4.
6. Viruses do not show which of the following hallmarks of cellular life?
a. Metabolism
c. Growth
b. Evolution
d. Communication
7. Indicate (yes/no) for each type of microorganism if it contains a nucleus. 3 pts
_____ Archaea
______ Protozoa
______ Virus
_____ Fungus
______ Bacteria
_____ Algae
8. What are the names of the following coding functions of the cell? Choices: DNA
Replication, Transcription, Translation, Dehydration. 1.5 points
Synthesis of proteins
______________________
Making a new copy of the chromosome
______________________
Synthesizing mRNA molecules
______________________
9. Which of the three lines of descent include macroscopic representatives? (yes/no)
1.5 points
Archaea _______
Bacteria _______
Eukaryotes ________
History of Microbiology
10. What role does dust play in the swan neck flask experiment?
11. What technique did Koch need to invent to support the germ theory of disease?
12. What are the four steps or tests a microbe must pass in order for it to be shown to
cause a disease? (What are Koch’s postulates?) 4 points
1.
2.
3.
4.
13. Match the scientist with their contribution to microbiology. 4 points
_____ Koch
A. Discovered penicillin
_____ Ventner
B. Enrichment culture method
_____ Fleming
C. Study of hot springs bacteria
_____ Woese
D. Discovery of archaea
_____ Beijerinck
E. Importance of hygiene
_____ Lister
F. Discovered the cause of Anthrax
_____ Brock
G. Sequenced genomes
Biological Chemistry/Protein Structure
14. Draw the structure of water and indicate the + and - areas. 2 points
15. How many covalent bonds does each of the following elements normally form?
H-
C-
O-
N-
16. Circle the correct word. Hydrophobic molecules are (attracted, repelled) by water.
17. Hydrogen bonding is important in
a.
b.
c.
d.
the primary structure of proteins
the stability of membranes
the double helix of DNA
all of the above
18. Draw the dehydration reaction between two amino acids leading to the formation of a
peptide bond. Indicate the functional groups of the two amino acids as R1 and R2. Put a
box around the peptide bond. 5 points
13. Match the scientist with their contribution to microbiology
_____ Koch
A. Discovered penicillin
_____ Ventner
B. Enrichment culture method
_____ Fleming
C. Study of hot springs bacteria
_____ Woese
D. Discovery of archaea
_____ Beijerinck
E. Importance of hygiene
_____ Lister
F. Discovered the cause of Anthrax
_____ Brock
G. Sequenced genomes
Biological Chemistry/Protein Structure
14. Draw the structure of water and indicate the + and - areas. 2 points
15. How many covalent bonds does each of the following elements normally form?
H-
C-
O-
N-
16. Circle the correct word. Hydrophillic molecules are (attracted, repelled) by water.
17. Hydrogen bonding is important in
a.
b.
c.
d.
the primary structure of proteins
the stability of membranes
the double helix of DNA
all of the above
18. Draw the dehydration reaction between two amino acids leading to the formation of a
peptide bond. Indicate the functional groups of the two amino acids as R1 and R2. Put a
box around the peptide bond. 5 points
Membrane Structure and Transport
19. Cell membranes are (rigid, flexible) and are (excellent, poor) chemical barriers.
20. What kind of linkages are involved in attachment of fatty acids to glycerol in
eukaryotes and bacteria? How about archaea? 2 points
Circle the correct word in each pair
21. The fatty acids of bacteria are usually linear, but may contain ring structures called
(sterols, hopanoids).
22. In archaea, the fatty acids are branched molecules called (sterols, phytanyls), which
are made of (sterol, isoprene) subunits. 2 points
23. Thermophillic archaea have a lipid monolayer composed of (glycerol diethers,
biphytanyl tetraethers).
24. Define osmosis. 2 points
25. Which requires energy, diffusion or transport?
26. Maltose enters the cell with the help of three proteins: a periplasmic binding protein,
a channel protein in the membrane, and an ATP kinase on the inside of the cell.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Passive diffusion
Primary active transport
Secondary active transport
Group translocation
“ABC” transport
27. Glucose is chemically altered upon entering the cell.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Osmosis
Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport
Group translocation
This is an example of:
28. Glycerol enters the cell by moving from high concentration to low concentration, and
shows saturation kinetics. This is an example of:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Osmosis
Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport
Group translocation
29. Lactose enters the cell at the same time as a proton. This is an example of:
a.
b.
c.
d.
primary active transport
secondary active transport - uniporter
secondary active transport - symporter
secondary active transport - antiporter
Polysaccharides and Cell Wall Structures
30. Which of the following is -glucose?
31. Which form of glucose makes a more soluble polymer, alpha or beta?
32. Cell walls are (rigid, flexible) and are (excellent, poor) chemical barriers.
33. Complete the following table, indicating the chemical structure of cell walls. 4 pts
Microorganism
Algae
Polymer
Bond Arrangement
1->4
Sub-units
Fungi
Bacteria
Archaea
Pseudomurein
N-acetylglucosamine
and N-acetylmuramic
acid
N-acetylglucosamine
and N-acetyltauronic
acid
28. Glycerol enters the cell by moving from high concentration to low concentration, and
does show saturation kinetics. This is an example of:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Osmosis
Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport
Group translocation
29. Lactose enters the cell at the same time as a proton. This is an example of:
a.
b.
c.
d.
primary active transport
secondary active transport - uniporter
secondary active transport - symporter
secondary active transport - antiporter
Polysaccharides and Cell Wall Structures
30. Which of the following is -glucose?
31. Which form of glucose makes a more polymer that is not digestible by humans ,
alpha or beta?
32. Cell walls are (rigid, flexible) and are (excellent, poor) chemical barriers.
33. Complete the following table, indicating the chemical structure of cell walls. 4 pts
Microorganism
Algae
Polymer
Bond Arrangement
1->4
Sub-units
Fungi
Bacteria
Archaea
Pseudomurein
N-acetylglucosamine
and N-acetylmuramic
acid
N-acetylglucosamine
and N-acetyltauronic
acid
34. In bacterial cell walls, the polymer of NAG and NAM is cross-linked by
a. sugars
b. amino acids
c. nucleotides
d. disulfides
35. Circle the correct letters. ( D, L ) – Stereoisomers of sugars and ( D, L ) – forms of
amino acids are normally found in nature.
36. Distinguish how lysozyme and penicillin affect bacterial cell walls. Specifically,
which parts of peptidoglycans are affected, and does each affect growing cells or existing
cells? 2 points
37. Draw the arrangement of the gram negative cell envelope. Include the following
things: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoprotein, peptidoglycan, porins, cytoplasmic and
outer membranes, periplasm, and cytoplasm. 4 points
38. Which of the following is not part of Lipopolysaccharide?
a.
b.
c.
d.
N-acetyltalosaminouronic acid
O-specific polysaccharide
Lipid A
Core polysaccharide
39. Indicate if each item is associated with gram-negative cell walls, gram-positive cell
walls, or both? 2 points
Teichoic acid _____________
Diaminopimelic acid _____________
Outer membranes _____________
Pentaglycine interbridges _____________
Nucleic acids in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
40. Of the five Carbon atoms in ribose and deoxyribose, match the structural significance
of each with the carbon number. 2.5 points
_____ C1
A. Phosphate group is attached to this C
_____ C2
B. No particular importance
_____ C3
C. Is missing an O atom in deoxyribose
_____ C4
D. Free hydroxyl is where next nucleotide is attached
_____ C5
E. Nitrogenous base (A,G,C,T,U) attached here
41. Of adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil, which are found in RNA?
42. Indicate which nucleotides are complimentary, and how many hydrogen bonds are
shared. 2 points
38. Which of the following is not part of Lipopolysaccharide?
a.
b.
c.
d.
N-acetyltalosaminouronic acid
O-specific polysaccharide
Lipid A
Core polysaccharide
39. Indicate if each item is associated with gram-negative cell walls, gram-positive cell
walls, or both? 2 points
Teichoic acid _____________
Diaminopimelic acid _____________
Outer membranes _____________
Pentaglycine interbridges _____________
Nucleic acids in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
40. Of the five Carbon atoms in ribose and deoxyribose, match the structural significance
of each with the carbon number. 2.5 points
_____ C1
A. Phosphate group is attached to this C
_____ C2
B. No particular importance
_____ C3
C. Is missing an O atom in deoxyribose
_____ C4
D. Free hydroxyl is where next nucleotide is attached
_____ C5
E. Nitrogenous base (A,G,C,T,U) attached here
41. Of adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil which are found in DNA?
42. Indicate which nucleotides are complementary, and how many hydrogen bonds are
shared. 2 points
43. Complete the following table comparing the arrangement of DNA in Eukaryotes and
Prokaryotes. 5 points
Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
Shape of Chromosome
Number of Chromosomes
Copies of Each
Chromosome
Compartmentalization of
Chromosome
Supercoiling Involves
Histones?
Motility in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
44. Draw a bacterium with lophotrichous flagella.
45. Do bacteria judge their environment by area (spatially) or over the course of time
(temporally)?
46. Amoeba slink along with a false “foot” formed from reshaping their cytoskeleton.
This extension is called a
43.5 Complete the following table comparing the arrangement of DNA in Eukaryotes
and Prokaryotes. 5 points
Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
Shape of Chromosome
Number of Chromosomes
Copies of Each
Chromosome
Compartmentalization of
Chromosome
Supercoiling Involves
Histones?
Motility in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
44. Draw a bacterium with peritrichous flagella.
45. Do bacteria judge their environment by area (spatially) or over the course of time
(temporally)?
46. Amoeba slink along with a false “foot” formed from reshaping their cytoskeleton.
This extension is called a
47. Compare Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic motility by completing the following table. 4
points
Trait or Property
Appendages related to
motility
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Name of proteins that the
appendages are composed
of
Motion of appendages
Energy source expended for
motion
Prokaryotic cell features
48. Which of the following are composed of protein?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
PHB
Sulfur granules
S-layer
magnetite
all of the above
49. Which is involved in “mating” or conjugation in bacteria like E. coli?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
glycocalyx
fimbriae
spore
pili
gamete
50. What are three advantages of having a capsule? Put a star by the most important. 4
points
ABC-
51. What is the only truly biodegradable plastic?
52. Which two chemical compounds are associated with spores? Choices: Calcium,
diaminopimelic acid, teichoic acid, dipicolinic acid, Iron, glycogen. 2 points
53. A photautotrophic bacterium lives in the surface water of ponds. It collects energy
from sunlight, and uses CO2 gas as its sole source of carbon. Which two of the following
internal features might you expect to find in the cytoplasm of the cell? 2 points
Chloroplast organelles
Carboxysomes
Gas vesicles
Fimbriae
53. Match the prokaryotic cell feature with the type of organism in (or on) which it might
be found. 3.5 points
_____ Sulfur granule
A. An Archaea with no pseudomurein
_____ Endospore
B. Streptococcus mutans causing tooth decay
_____ Magnetosome
C. A Sulfur-oxidizing lithotroph like Beggiatoa
_____ Capsule
D. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
_____ S-Layer
E. A microaerophile such as Aquaspirillum
_____ Gas vesicle
F. Bacillus or Clostridium
_____ Fimbriae
G. A cyanobacterium like Anabena
4 free points!