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Study Guide for CH. 6 Test
1. Difference between light microscopes and electron: purpose and magnification
2. Hooke and Leeuwenhoek: what did they do?
3. Structures and function of the plasma membrane
4. Diffusion and osmosis: what are they and how do particles/water move across a
selectively permeable membrane. At equilibrium?
5. How does a cell respond being placed in a hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic solution
6. All vocabulary #1-37 (see your vocabulary- DO NOT REWRITE)
7. Cell parts: identify where at in the cell (what they look like) and the function of each part
a. Golgi, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum (2 kinds), mitochondria, chloroplast,
ribosome, nucleus, microfilaments, plasma membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm,
cytoskeleton, vacuole,
b. Which parts are found only in plant cells
8. Path of protein production in the cell
9. Difference between passive transport, facilitated diffusion, and active transport
10.Compare and contrast the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell
11.Explain the 3 parts of the cell theory and why is it important to biology.
Study Guide for CH. 6 Test - ANSWERS
1. Difference between light microscopes and electron: purpose and magnification
Light- magnifies about 1000X, needs light as source, specimen can be alive or
preserved.
Electron (TEM and SEM)- magnifies about 1,000,000X, needs electrons, specimens
need to be preserved. Scanning looks at surface, Transmission looks inside.
2. Hooke and Leeuwenhoek: what did they do?
Hooke- Named cells, looked at cork, developed microscope
Leeunwenhoek- developed microscope, looked at microscopic animals.
3. Structures and function of the plasma membrane
Hydrophilic heads – water loving and Hydrophobic tails- water fearing; Made of a
phospholipid bilayer. Allows certain substances through and other need transport
proteins (like a bridge) to get across.
4. Diffusion and osmosis: what are they and how do particles/water move across a
selectively permeable membrane. At equilibrium?
Diffusion- movement of solute particles from area of high concentration to area of
low concentration. Particles that can fit through the membrane pass through. If they
are too big or have a charge they may not pass.
Equilibrium- when the solute particles (like salt) move back and forth at an equal
rate. Water also moves back and forth at an equal rate.
5. How does a cell respond being placed in a hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic solution
Hypertonic: Solute goes towards the cell; Water leaves cell; Cell shrinks
Isotonic: solute and water move back and forth equally; cell maintains shape
Hypotonic: solute leaves the cell; water moves into the cell; cell swells
6. All vocabulary #1-37 (see your vocabulary- DO NOT REWRITE)
7. Cell parts: identify where at in the cell (what they look like) and the function of each part
a. Golgi, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum (2 kinds), mitochondria, chloroplast,
ribosome, nucleus, microfilaments, plasma membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm,
cytoskeleton, vacuole,
Golgi- processing center like UPS of Fed-ex
ER- assembly line; rough has ribosomes and makes proteins; smooth makes lipids
Mitochondria- electric powerplant; cell respiration by making energy molecule of cell,
ATP; in both plants and animals
Chloroplast- bakery; photosynthesis in plants; makes glucose and oxygen
Ribosomes- factory of cell, makes proteins using DNA Nucleus- city hall; where all
information about organism is stored
Microfilaments- skeleton; flexible structure that helps support cell
Plasma membrane- gatekeeper of cells; made of phospholipid bilayer
Cell wall- skin and bones; gives support and protection to plant cells
Cytoplasm- cell liquid inside the cell
Cytoskeleton- give support to hold cell up
Vacuole- membrane sac that serve as warehouses
b. Which parts are found only in plant cells- chloroplasts, cell wall, central vacuole
8. Path of protein production in the cell: Rough ER  Golgi  somewhere inside or
outside the cell
9. Difference between passive transport, facilitated diffusion, and active transport
Passive transport- High to low concentration; no energy added
Facilitated diffusion- passive diffusion using a transport protein
Active transport- low to high concentration; energy added
10.Compare and contrast the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell: Eukaryote-plant and
animals, has nucleus Prokaryote-bacteria have no nucleus
11.Explain the 3 parts of the cell theory and why is it important to biology.
1. All living things are composed of cells, 2. cells are the basic unit of structure and
function in living things 3. All cells comes from other cells