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Unit 2: Classification, Dichotomous Keys, Phylogenetic Trees, Evolution, Relations of Vertebrates, Fossils,
Convergent Evolution, Homologous Structures, and Co-evolution Study Guide
1. What is a species?
2. What are the levels of taxonomic classification, in order, from biggest to most specific?
3. What is a mnemonic that could help you remember this (the classification)?
4. What is special about how the species is written? (There are 3 parts)
5. Write the scientific name for a human.
6. Why do we use the classification system?
7. How is a dichotomous key different than a phylogenetic tree?
8. Why is color a bad characteristic to use when making a dichotomous key (give two reasons)?
9. Are there different correct answers for a dichotomous key?
10. Are there different correct answers for a phylogenetic tree?
11. Draw the final correct phylogenetic tree that we came up with that shows the relationship between all 6
vertebrates we studied. Include the timeline!
12. Define the following systems:
a. Reproduction
b. Respiration
c. Circulation
d. Nervous
e. Digestion
f. Excretion
Questions 13-21 are probably best done in table form.
13. What is the characteristic(s) that makes a fish, a fish?
14. What is the characteristic(s) that makes a amphibian, a amphibian?
15. What is the characteristic(s) that makes a reptile, a reptile?
16. What is the characteristic(s) that makes a bird, a bird?
17. What is the characteristic(s) that makes a dinosaur, a dinosaur?
18. What is the characteristic(s) that makes a mammal, a mammal?
19. List the number of chambers in the heart of each of the 6 classes of vertebrate.
20. List the type of birth for each of the 6 classes of vertebrate.
21. List the method of breathing (gills, lungs, diffusion, etc) for each of the 6 classes of vertebrate.
22. Why is using structures or body parts dangerous when determining relationships?
23. What are two better ways of determining relationships? Then circle the best way.
24. What is the purpose of antibodies in the body?
25. If you mix mammal blood with an anti-mammal antibody, what will happen?
26. If a reaction happens when bird blood is mixed with dinosaur antibody, what does that mean?
27. What did birds evolve from?
28. What is evolution?
29. What is natural selection?
30. How are fossils dated?
31. What type of dating is used for the last 5000 years? 4.3 billion years?
32. Why is relative dating of fossils just as important as absolute dating?
33. What is the Law of Superposition?
34. Using the phylogenetic tree below:
a) Draw an arrow to the common ancestor of Aeshnidae and Corduliidae.
b) Which dragonfly species have been around the shortest amount of time? How can you tell?
c) Which dragonfly(s) is most closely related to Calopterygidae?
35. What is convergent evolution?
36. Give an example.
37. What are homologous structures?
38. Give an example.
39. How do you tell the difference between homologous structures and convergent evolution?
40. What are vestigial structures?
41. Give an example.
42. How do vestigial structures and homologous structures provide evidence for evolution?
43. What are the different types of evolution? How do you tell the difference between them?
44. The flowers and the hummingbirds were an example of what type of evolution?
45. Evolution occurs “faster” when populations are isolated, WHY?
46. What is the founder’s effect?
47. What is genetic drift?
48. If you started with 2 populations of birds explain how isolation, founder’s effect, and genetic drift can lead to new
49. Explain how evolution does not lead to “perfect” organisms but to those with the best traits to survive. (Think of the
examples I used in class if you are stuck)
50. What happens when a population undergoes a bottleneck?
**Review your kingdom key, vertebrate research chart, labs/activities, and notes***