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Notes from A Journey Through North Carolina
Rumblings of War (p. 332)
 National Socialist [Workers’] Party (Nazi)/Hitler in Germany
 Benito Mussolini and Fascist Party in Italy
 Japan—plotting to take over Asia
 Germany, Italy, Japan=Axis Powers
 Italy—invaded Ethiopia
 Germany supported Franco to overthrow the Spanish government and also
occupied Austria and part of Czechoslovakia
 Japan took over much of China
 US=isolationism=staying out of other nations’ conflicts
Blitzkrieg (p. 333)
 Swift movement in taking over nations in Europe
o Poland, Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, France
The United States Prepares for Combat (p. 333)
 Congress issued peacetime draft
 Expanded Ft. Bragg, Camp Davis (army)
 Camp Lejeune, Cherry Point (marines)
 Factories began making military supplies to sell to Britain
Trouble in Asia (p. 333)
 European colonies in Asia vulnerable to Japan
 US Pacific fleet bases—Philippines, Guam, Wake Island, Hawaii
The United States Goes to War (p. 334)
 December 7, 1941 “ A date which will live in infamy”—Japanese planes
attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii
 Much of Pacific fleet destroyed, 2,400 people killed
 Other bases also suffered destruction by Japanese forces
 Congress declared war on Japan the next day; then Germany and Italy declared
war on the US
 US, Britain, Soviet Union=Allied powers
 350,000 North Carolinians including 7,000 women served in armed forces during
War in Europe (p. 334)
 Germany focused on Eastern Europe for coal and oil fields=fuel for German tanks,
planes, submarines
 Soviet Union took most of the fighting
Battles of the US Coast (p. 336)
 Germany had a powerful submarine fleet which patrolled for oil tankers and other
supply ships
Many strikes off NC coast—debris, oil slicks, dead bodies on the shore
Life on the Home Front (pp. 336-7)
 Ration stamps=stamps to buy certain goods such as sugar, meat, gasoline,
rubber, shoes
 “victory gardens”
 Scrap metal drives
 War bonds
 Families with members serving in war flew white flags with blue stars for each
member serving in war (gold stars stitched over blue when soldiers died)
 More than 7,000 NC men and women died in combat
War Ends the Depression (pp. 338-9)
 Congress increased the income tax
 Jobs in armed forces, factories manufacturing war supplies
 Ft. Bragg expanded (5,000 to 70,000 soldiers)—building programs employed
many NC people
 More people, more traffic, more land/housing sales, private industry flourished—
ships, aircraft, chemical, electronics
Prisoners of War (p. 339)
 NC had 17 POW (prisoners of war) Camps with 10,000 prisoners
 Geneva Convention—governs treatment of war prisoners
 POWs put to work on farms, cutting timber, etc.
“Rosie the Riveter” (p. 340)
 Women filled men’s jobs in factories in traditional “male” jobs
 NC—1/2 manufacturing jobs held by women
 Served in armed forces=WAC (Women’s Army Corps), WAVES (Women
Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Sevice), WASPs (Women’s Air Force Service
 No combat, instead nurses, radio operators, administrators, pilots
African Americans and the War (p. 342)
 Tuskegee Airmen—all-black flight training program at Tuskegee Institute
 Blacks allowed in Marine Corps for the first time (since Rev. War)
 Separate training facilities and regiments
Persistent Racism (p. 343)
 Racism in armed forces and in general public
Japanese Internment (p. 343)
 Fear of Japanese sabotaging or spying
 Lost jobs, homes, businesses, possessions when moved to internment camps in the
rural areas
 US government apologized in 1988 for it
The Tide Turns in Europe (p. 344)
 Stalingrad
 North Africa
 July 1943—Italy fell to Allied troops
D-Day (Doomsday) (p. 344)
 June 6, 1944
 Troops crossed English Channel to Normandy
 Largest land/water operation ever attempted (amphibious)
 2,500 Allied soldiers were killed
 Liberation of France
 V-E Day—May 8th
The Holocaust (p. 345)
The War in Asia (pp. 346-7)
 Key military victory at Midway Island in June 1942
 Island hopping—controlling Pacific islands (one at a time)
The Atomic Bomb (p. 347)
 Manhattan Project
 Oak Ridge, TN
 Testing in New Mexico
 August 6,1945—Little Boy dropped on Hiroshima from the Enola Gay
 Fat Man on Nagasaki on Aug. 9th
 Atomic bombs instead of invading Japan
 V-J Day—Sept. 2—unconditional surrender by Japan