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Transcript
Tablighi Jamaat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tablighi Jamaat (Urdu: ‫جماعتی غیت بل‬, Arabic: ‫ال ت ب ل يغ جماعة‬, English: Society
for spreading faith)[2] is a transnational religious movement which was founded in 1926
by Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhlawi in India.[5] The movement primarily aims at Islamic
spiritual reformation by working at the grass roots level, reaching out to Muslims across
all social and economic spectra to bring them closer to the practices of the Prophet
Muhammad.[4][6]
Tablighi Jamaat came forth as an offshoot of the Deobandi movement. Its inception is
believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to
vulnerable and non-practicing Muslims.[7] It gradually expanded from local to national to
a transnational movement and now has followers in over 150 countries.[4]
Tabligh Jamaat maintains a non-affiliating stature in matters of politics and fiqh
(jurisprudence) so as to eschew the controversies that would otherwise accompany such
affiliations.[8] Although, Tabligh Jamaat emerged out of the Deobandi sub-school in the
Hanafi fiqh, no particular interpretation of Islam has been endorsed since the beginning
of movement.[8][9] Tabligh Jamaat has largely avoided electronic media and has
emphasized a personal communication for proselytizing. The teachings of Tabligh Jamaat
are mainly rudimentary and the Six Principles put forward by Muhammad Ilyas influence
most of their teachings.
Despite its pacifist stance, Tabligh Jamaat has appeared on the fringes of numerous
terrorism investigations. Tablighi Jamaat's role as a springboard to terrorist organizations
has been questioned several times but there is no evidence that the Tabligh Jamaat
deliberately act as a recruiting arm for Islamic militant organizations.[4][10] Tabligh Jamaat
attracted significant public and media attention when it announced plans for the largest
mosque in Europe to be built in London, United Kingdom.
The emergence of Tablighi Jamaat represented the intensification of individual
reformation aspect of the original Deobandi movement. It was also a continuation of the
broader trend of Islamic revival in India in the wake of the collapsed Muslim political
power and the consolidation of the British rule in India in the mid-nineteenth century.
This emergence also coincides with the rise of various Hindu proselytizing movements
which launched massive efforts in the early twentieth century to reconvert Hindus who
had previously converted to Islam and Christianity.[11] Notable among these Hindu
revivalist movements were Shuddhi (purification) and Sangathan (consolidation)
movements. The Tabligh movement aimed to reaffirm Muslim religiocultural identity of
these borderline Muslims who still carried customs and religious practices from Hindu
past. Unlike common proselytizing movements, TJ never strove to convert non-Muslims
to Islam, rather it exclusively focused on making Muslims 'better and purer'.[12][13]
Origin
Main article: Tabligh movement in Mewat
Tablighi Jamaat originated in 1926 in Mewat, in north India, which was inhabited by
Rajput tribes known as Meos. At the time, some Muslim Indian leaders feared that
Muslims were losing their religious identity to the majority Hindu culture. The movement
was never given any name officially, but Ilyas used to call it Tahrik-i Imaan. [14][15]
There is evidence that several Meos converted to Islam, followed by re-conversion to
Hinduism when Muslim political power declined in the region. The Meos were generally
benighted Muslims before the emergence of Tabligh Jamaat, and lacked the necessary
acumen required to resist the cultural and religious influence of Hindus.[16]
Muhammad Ilyas, the founder of Tabligh Jamaat, wanted to set forth a movement that
would exemplify the Qur'anic decree of 'enjoining good and forbidding evil'.[17][18] The
inspiration for devoting his life to Islam came to Ilyas during his second pilgrimage to the
Hejaz in 1926.[19] He initially strove to establish a network of mosque-based religious
schools to educate the Mewati Muslims about correct Islamic beliefs and practices.
Shortly afterwards, he was disappointed with the reality that these institutions were
producing religious functionaries but not preachers.[20]
He abandoned his teaching profession at Madrasah Mazharul Ulum in Saharanpur and
started on his life as a missionary. He relocated to Nizamuddin near Delhi, where this
movement was formally launched in 1926.[20] When setting the guidelines for the
movement, he sought inspiration from the practices adopted by Muhammad at the dawn
of Islam.[18] Muhammad Ilyas put forward the slogan, Urdu: "!‫م س لمان !م س لمان وﮮ ا‬
‫"ب نو‬, "O Muslims! Become Muslims". This expressed the central focus of Tablighi
Jamat; their aim to renew Muslim society by uniting them in embracing the lifestyle of
Muhammad. The movement gained a phenomenal following in a relatively short period
and nearly 25,000 people attended the annual conference in November 1941.[20]
Expansion
The group began to expand its activities in 1946, and within two decades the group
reached Southwest Asia and Southeast Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America.[21]
Tabligh Jamaat's aversion to politics helped it enter and operate in societies where
politically active religious groups faced severe restrictions.[22] Initially it expanded its
reach to South Asian diaspora communities, firstly in Arabic countries, and then in
Southeast Asia. The first foreign missions were sent to Hejaz and Britain in 1946.[23]
Before entering Europe, the movement first established itself in the United States. It
established a large presence in Europe during the 1970s and 1980s.[14] The construction
of the Markazi Masjid in Dewsbury, England commenced in 1978 which subsequently
became the European headquarters of Tablighi Jamaat. This centre holds one major
gathering annually, generally in Dewsbury itself. It has also constructed a busy madrasah,
called the Institute of Islamic Education.[24]
Introduced in France in 1960s, it grew prominently during 1970-80s.[25] Tabligh Jamaat
declined around 1989, although some members still represent it in the French Council of
the Muslim Faith.[14] In the few years before 2006, Tabligh Jamaat's influence has
exponentially grown in France, which now has around 100,000 followers.[1] However, the
United Kingdom is the current focus of the movement in the West, primarily due to the
large South Asian population that began to arrive there in the 1960s and 1970s.[26] By
2007, Tabligh members were situated at 600 of Britain's 1,350 mosques.[24]
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the movement made inroads into Central
Asia. As of 2007, it was estimated 10,000 Tabligh Jamaat members could be found in
Kyrgyzstan alone.[2] The FBI believes that nearly 50,000 members of Tablighi Jamaat are
active in United States.[4] By 2008, organization had a presence in nearly 213 countries
and with a global following of 100 to 150 million people, it has now become the largest
Muslim movement in the world. However, it maintains a majority presence in
South Asia.[4][27]
Beliefs and objectives
Following the fundamentals of Sunni Islam, every member is allowed to follow his own
fiqh as long as it does not deviate from Sunni Islam.[8][26] Tablighi Jamaat defines its
objective with reference to the concept of Dawah which literally means 'to call' and
connotes to an invitation to act. In religious context, it implies to a call towards prayer
which may also refer to a 'mission' if used in reference with religious prophets and people
who were assigned such mission. Tabligh Jamaat interprets Dawah as enjoining good and
forbidding evil and defines its objective within the framework of two particular Qur'anic
verses which refer to this mission.[28] Those two verses are:[29]
Who is better in speech than one who calls (men) to Allah, works
righteousness, and says, "I am of those who bow in Islam"?
—Qur'an, sura 41 (Fussilat), ayah 33[30]
Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good,
enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong: They are the ones to
attain felicity.
—Qur'an sura 3 (Al-i-Imran), ayah 104[17]
Tabligh Jamaat encourages everyone to fulfill the Islamic requirement of da'wa even if
the person falls short of strong religious intellect. This was different from the other
Islamic movements which were mainly ulama-led and extended their leadership roles to
the religious erudites. Tabligh Jamaat also negated the prevailing idea that the highest
standards of Islamic scholarship and ethical standards were pre-requisites for
proselytizing; and promoted da'wa as a mechanism of self-reform.[31]
The only objective of Tabligh Jamaat, overtly stated in most sermons, is that Muslims
adopt and invite for the Islamic lifestyle, exemplified by Muhammad, in its perfection.
They encourage Muslims to spend time out of their daily routine in the tablighi activities
so that the rest of routine could be harmonized with Islamic lifestyle. They insist that the
best way of learning is teaching and encouraging others.[7]
Tablighi ethic discourages social enmeshments in customary and ceremonial rituals
which are usually extravagantly followed in South Asia. For example, in such annual
congregations and other similar mass meetings, marriages are performed by dozens sans
the costly celebrations.[32]
Six Principles
Muhammad Ilyas devoted to what he described as "the mission of the Prophets". The
method adopted by him was simple. It was to organize units (called jamaats, Arabic:
‫ جماع مج‬meaning Assembly) of at least ten persons and send them to various villages. This
‫ا‬
unit jamaat, would visit a village, invite the local Muslims to assemble in the mosque and
present their message in the form of Six Principles.[33] Muhammad Ilyas articulated six
demands in the form of Six Principles which are quintessential to Tabligh Jamaat's
teachings. These six principles are:
1. Kalmah: An article of faith in which the tabligh accepts that there is no god but
Allah and the Prophet Muhammad is His Last messenger"
2. Salah: "Five daily prayers that are essential to spiritual elevation, piety, and a life
free from the ills of the material world"
3. Ilm and Zikr: "The knowledge and remembrance of Allah conducted in sessions
in which the congregation listens to preaching by the emir, performs prayers,
recites the Quran and reads Hadith. The congregation will also use these sessions
to eat meals together, thus fostering a sense of community and identity"
4. Ikraam-e-Muslim: "The treatment of fellow Muslims with honor and deference"
5. Tas'hih-i-Niyyat: "Reforming one’s life in supplication to Allah by performing
every human action for the sake of Allah and toward the goal of selftransformation"
6. Dawt'o' Tableegh(Dawah): "The sparing of time to live a life based on faith and
learning its virtues, following in the footsteps of the Prophet, and taking His
message door-to-door for the sake of faith"[26]
Organization
Kakrail Mosque, Dhaka. The Tablighi Jamaat movement in Bangladesh is mostly based
here.
Tablighi Jamaat follows an informal organizational structure and keeps an introvert
institutional profile. It keeps its distance from mass media and avoids publishing details
about its activities and membership. The group also exercises complete abstinence from
expressing opinions on political and controversial issues mainly to avoid the disputes
which would accompany these endorsements.[34][35] As an organization, Tabligh Jamaat
does not seek donations and is largely funded by its senior members. Since there is no
formal registration process and no official membership count has ever been taken, the
exact membership statistics remain unknown.[36] The movement discourages interviews
with its elders and has never officially released texts. Even though there are publications
associated with the movement, particularly by Zakariya Kandahalwi, the emphasis has
never been on book learning, but rather on first-hand personal communication.[7][37] A
collection of books, usually referred as Tablighi Nisaab (Tablighi Curriculum), is
recommended by Tabligh Jamaat elders for general reading. This set includes four books
namely (Hayatus Sahabah, Fazail-e-Amaal, Fazail-e-Sadqaat and Muntakhab-eAhadis).[38]
The organization's activities are coordinated through centers and headquarters called
Markaz. Tablighi Jamaat maintains its international headquarters, called Nizamuddi
Markaz, in the Nizamuddin West district of South Delhi, India, from where it originally
started. It also has country headquarters in over 213 countries to coordinate its activities.
These headquarters organize volunteer, self-funding people in groups (called jamaats),
averaging ten to twelve people, for reminding Muslims to remain steadfast on path of
God.[27] These jamaats and preaching missions are self funded by their respective
members.
Leadership
Ameer is the title of leadership in the Tabligh Jamaat and the attribute largely sought is
the quality of faith, rather than the worldly rank.[32] The ameer of Tabligh Jamaat is
appointed for life by central consultative council (shoora) and elders of Tabligh
Jamaat.[37][39] First ameer, also the founder, was Muhammad Ilyas, second was his son
Muhammad Yusuf Kandhalawi and the third was Inaam ul Hasan.[21] At present, there is
a council of two people — Zubair ul Hasan and Saad Kandhalawi — acting as ameer.[27]
Activities and traditions
The activism of Tabligh Jamaat can be characterized by the last of the Six Principles.
This principle, Tafrigh-i-Waqt (English: sparing of time) justifies the withdrawal from
world, though temporarily, for travelling. Travel has been adopted as the most effective
method of personal reform and has become an emblematic feature of organization. They
describe the purpose of this retreat as to patch the damages caused by the worldly
indulgence and occasionally use the dry-dock parable to explain this.[40]
This withdrawal is generally compared to the Hijra, where Muhammad and his Sahabah
(Arabic: "!‫"ال صحاب ة‬, "companions") left behind their worldly pursuits for religious
concerns and migrated to the city of Medina in 622 CE. These individual jamaats, each
led by an ameer, are sent from each markaz across the city or country to remind people to
persist on the path of God. The duration of the work depends on the discretion of each
jamaat. A trip can take an evening, a couple of days or a prolonged duration.[4][32]
Khurūj - proselytizing tour
Tabligh Jamaat encourages its followers to follow the pattern of spending "one night a
week, one weekend a month, 40 continuous days a year, and ultimately 120 days at least
once in their lives engaged in tabligh missions". During the course of these tours,
members are generally seen dressed in simple, white, loose-clothing, carrying sleeping
bags on their backs.[32] These members use mosques as their base during this travel but
particular mosques, due to more frequent tablighi activities, have come to be specifically
associated with this organization. These mosques generally hold the periodic, smaller
scale convocations for neighborhood members.[7]
During their stay in mosques, these jamaats conduct a daily gasht, which involves
visiting local neighborhoods, preferably with the help of a guide.[26] They invite people to
attend the Maghrib prayer at their mosque and those who attend are delivered a sermon
after the prayers, which essentially outlines the Six Principles. They urge the attendees to
spend time in tabligh for self reformation and the propagation of Islam.[41][42]
Generally, the assumed role of these jamaat members cycle in a way that they may be
engaged as a preacher, a cook or as a cleaner at other times. Among Tabligh Jamaat
members, this is generally referred to as khidmat which essentially connotes to serving
their companions and freeing them for tablighi engagements.[32] The members of the
Jamaat are assigned these roles based on the day's mashwara. The markaz keeps records
of each jamaat and its members, the identity of whom is verified from their respective
mosques. Mosques are used to assist the tablighi activities of individual jamaats that
voluntarily undertake preaching missions.[4][27] Members of a jamaat, ideally, pay
expenses themselves so as to avoid financial dependence on anyone.[32]
Ijtema - annual gathering
An annual gathering of followers, called ijtema, is summoned at headquarters of the
respective countries. A typical ijtema continues for three days and ends with an
exceptionally long prayer.[1] These gatherings are considered moments of intense
blessings by Tabligh Jamaat members and are known to attract members in excess of
2 million in some countries.[7] The largest of such annual gatherings are held in India,
Pakistan and Bangladesh. The Bengali gathering, called Bishwa Ijtema (World
Gathering), converges followers from around the world in Tongi near Dhaka, Bangladesh
and with an attendance exceeding 3 million people, it is assumed to be the second largest
annual Muslim gathering in the world after Hajj.[43][44] The second largest Tabligh Jamaat
gathering takes place in Raiwind, Pakistan which was attended by approximately
1.5 million people in 2004.[45]
Role of women
Women were encouraged to participate since the beginning of the movement. Some
scholars objected on the participation of women but Muhammad Ilyas slowly gained their
support and the first jamaat of women was formed in Nizamuddin, Dehli.[32]
Accompanied by a close male relative, women are encouraged to go out in jamaats and
work among other women and family members while following the rules of modesty and
seclusion. Jamaats of women sometimes participate in large annual meetings; otherwise,
they commonly hold neighborhood meetings. Since South Asian Islamic culture
discourages women to go to the mosque and saintly shrines, these venues offer an
opportunity for women to pray together and congregate religiously.
In many modern Islamist movements, women have been relegated to a domestic role.
Tabligh Jamaat tends to blur the boundaries of gender roles and both genders share a
common behavioral model and their commitment to tabligh. The emphasis is on a
common nature and responsibilities shared by both genders. Just as men redraw the
gender roles when they wash and cook during the course of da'wa tours, women
undertake the male responsibility of sustaining the household.[32]
Controversies
Abbey Mills Mosque
Main article: Abbey Mills Mosque
The new Abbey Mills pumping station, which is adjacent to the proposed site of the
Mosque
Tablighi Jamaat gained much media and public attention in Europe, particularly in United
Kingdom, when it announced the plans for an 18-acre (73,000 m2) mosque near Olympic
Park in east London. This mosque was to have a capacity in excess of 70,000 people
making it the largest religious building in United Kingdom and the largest mosque in
Europe. The scope of project raised much criticism and concern among the general
public.[4] However, the mosque was downsized in its revised project plans for a capacity
of 12,000 people.[46]
The plan sparked controversy for various reasons including its initially reported size, the
possible chemical contamination risk associated with the site, the uncertainty as to the
sources of funding that will be used by Tabligh Jamaat, and alleged links between
Tabligh Jamaat and Islamic terrorism.[47][48][49] Mosque officials are engaged in resolving
the controversies, as well as countering the perception implied by the term "megamosque".[50] Public response to the mosque and associated controversies has included
online petitions, various public talks, debates, speeches, and websites, and even apparent
threats against people opposing the mosque.[51] With the expiration of the permit to use
the site, and neither a current plan permission nor application for a mosque, the building's
future remains uncertain.[52][53]
Allegations of terrorism
Although Tabligh Jamaat has claimed a pacific stance since its inception, after the
9/11 attacks in the USA, concerns have risen about its role as a springboard to terrorist
organizations. It was cited on the cases of John Walker Lindh,[54] and dozens of the
captives the USA holds in extrajudicial detention in its Guantanamo Bay detention
camps, in Cuba, had their continued detention justified in part through their alleged
association with the Tabligh Jamaat.
A December 2001 article by the Boston Herald cited Indian security concerns branches
of the jamaat were related to al-Qaeda. Yet "shoe-bomber" Richard Reid apparently did
not remain with the group because they were not violent enough.[55] , passed into
Bangladesh under the guise of members of Tabligh Jamaat.[56] "We have a significant
presence of Tablighi Jamaat in the United States," the deputy chief of the FBI's
international terrorism section said in 2003, "and we have found that al-Qaeda used them
for recruiting now and in the past."[57]
A report by International Crisis Group titled Islamist terrorism in the Sahel: Fact or
Fiction?" described Tabligh Jamaat as "strictly non-political, and has never been linked
directly to violence." and further explained that no interviewed source could identify an
instance where Tabligh Jamaat members broke the law or engaged in specifically
political activity in Mali, Niger, Chad and Mauritania.[58]
Also, some notable people hold opinions contrary to terrorism allegations.
"peaceful and apolitical preaching-to-the-people movement."[59]
—Graham Fuller, a former CIA official and an expert on Islam, (author
of The Future of Political Islam)
"completely apolitical and law abiding."[60]
—Olivier Roy, a prominent authority on Islam at the French National
Centre for Scientific Research
"an apolitical, quietist movement of internal grassroots missionary
renewal"[7]
—Barbara D. Metcalf, University of Michigan, (While comparing its
activities to the Alcoholics Anonymous for the efforts to reshape individual
lives)
Criticism within Islam
The major opposition to the Tablighi Jamaat in the Indian subcontinent comes from the
Barelvi movement. One of the main criticisms against Tabligh Jamaat are that the men
neglect and ignore their families, especially by going out on da'wa tours. Tabligh Jamaat
participants, in response, argue that both genders should be equally engaged in Tabligh.
They further say that women, like men, are also urged to carry the responsibility to
Tabligh and that men should facilitate women's participation by providing childcare.[32]
Many critics, especially those from Hizb ut-Tahrir and Jamaat-e-Islami, criticize Tabligh
Jamaat for their neutral political stance. They say that Islamic forces, during their
decisive conflicts with un-Islamic forces, could have gained reinforcement from the
Tabligh Jamaat followers. They criticize the Tabligh Jamaat's neutral attitude towards
crucial issues like the introduction of an Islamic constitution in Pakistan (1950s), Islam vs
Socialism (1969–1971), communal riots in India in 1970s and 1980s, the Khatm-eNabuwwat Movement (1974), and Nizam-e-Mustafa Movement (1977).[61] Tabligh
Jamaat, in contrary, asserts that it is only by avoiding the political debates that the
Tabligh Jamaat has been successful in reawakening the spiritual conscience of the
followers. The apolitical stance also helped them operate in the difficult times, such as of
Ayub Khan (1960s) and Indira Gandhi (1975–77), when other sociopolitical Islamic
groups faced the restrictions.[61]
The difference of opinion regarding political participation also marks the fundamental
difference between Tabligh Jamaat and Islamist movements. While the Islamists believe
the that the acquisition of political power is the absolute requirement for the
establishment of a pristine Islamic society, the Tabligh Jamaat believes that merely the
political power is not enough to ensure effective organization of the Islamic social
order.[62] The exclusive focus of Tabligh Jamaat's attention is the individual and it
believes the reformation of society and institutions will only be effective if it is through
education and reform of individuals. They insist that the nations and social systems exist
by the virtue of individuals who form them; therefore, the reform must begin at
grassroots with the individuals and not at the higher level of political structure.[63]
Notable members
The Tablighi Jamaat has no membership lists or formal procedures for membership
which makes it is difficult quantify and verify affiliations.
Notable members include former presidents of Pakistan, Muhammad Rafiq Tarar and
Farooq Leghari. Former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif lives in the town of
Raiwind and has attended Tabligh Jamaat's activities on occasions. The first President of
Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was strong supporter of tablighi. He gave land near
Turag river when he was in power. Former President of Bangladesh Ziaur Rahman has
been a supporter and member, and popularized Tabligh Jamaat in Bangladesh.[citation needed]
Former singer and pop star Junaid Jamshed has close links with Tabligh Jamaat, and his
departure from professional singing career is attributed to his inclination towards this
movement. Famed singers, actors and models, including Attaullah Essa Khailwi,[64]
Gulzar Alam,[65] Shahensha Bacha, Alamzeb Mujahid,[66] and stage performers like Javed
Kodu, Jawad Waseem and Moin Akhter, are also affiliated with the movement.
Former Lieutenant General, and heads of Inter-Services Intelligence, Javed Nasir and
General Mahmud Ahmed of the Pakistan Army became a member of Tablighi Jamaat
during his service.[67] Tabligh Jamaat also has a notable following among Pakistani
professional cricketers Shahid Afridi, Mohammad Yousuf; and the former cricketers
Saqlain Mushtaq, Inzamam-ul-Haq, Mushtaq Ahmed, Saeed Anwar, Saleem Malik,
Waqar Younis are active members.[68] Mohammad Yousuf's conversion to Islam is
widely attributed to the influence of the Tabligh Jamaat.[69]
Notes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
^ a b c Khalid Hasan (2006-08-13). "Tableeghi Jamaat: all that you know
and don’t". Daily Times. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
^ a b c Rotar, Igor (June 23, 2007). "Pakistani Islamic Missionary Group
Establishes a Strong Presence in Central Asia". EurasiaNet. Retrieved 2008-1120.
^ Islamic Contestations: Essays On Muslims In India And Pakistan
Oxford University Press (10/19/2006) ISBN 019568513X
^ a b c d e f g h i Burton, Fred; Scott Stewart (2008-01-23). "Tablighi Jamaat:
An Indirect Line to Terrorism". Stratfor Intelligence. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
^ Masud 2000, p. xiii
6.
^ Dominic Kennedy and Hannah Devlin (2006-08-19). " "Disbelief and
shame in a community of divided faith". The Times (London). Retrieved 2009-0508.[dead link]
7.
^ a b c d e f Barbara, Metcalf. "Traditionalist" Islamic Activism: Deoband,
Tablighis, and Talibs". Social Science Research Council. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
8.
^ a b c Ayoob 2007, p. 135
9.
^ Jenkins, Philip (2007). God's continent (illustrated, annotated ed.). US:
Oxford University Press. p. 340. ISBN 019531395X
10.
^ ""Tablighi Jamaat does not preach jihad", says senior Muslim leader".
The Hindu. 2007-07-09. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
11.
^ Ballard 1994, p. 64
12.
^ Marty 1994, p. 511
13.
^ Masud 2000, p. 104
14.
^ a b c Kepel 2004, p. 261
15.
^ Roy 2007, p. 342
16.
^ Ballard 1994, p. 64
17.
^ a b Qur'an 3:104
18.
^ a b Ballard 1994, p. 65
19.
^ Agwani, Mohammad Shafi (1986). Islamic Fundamentalism in India
1986. Twenty First Century Indian Society. p. 41
20.
^ a b c Marty 1994, p. 152
21.
^ a b Marty 1994, p. 514
22.
^ Marty 1994, p. 524
23.
^ Masud 2000, p. 127
24.
^ a b Norfolk, Andrew (2007-09-10). "Muslim group behind ‘megamosque’ seeks to convert all Britain" (ece). London: TimesOnline. Retrieved
2008-04-07.
25.
^ Smith, Craig (2005-04-29). "French Islamic group offers rich soil for
militancy". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
26.
^ a b c d Howenstein, Nicholas; Dr. Eva Borreguero. "Islamist Networks:
The Case of Tablighi Jamaat". Retrieved 2007-06-14.
27.
^ a b c d Sameer Arshad (2007-07-22). "Tabligh, or the enigma of revival".
Times of India. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
28.
^ Masud 2000, p. xxi
29.
^ Masud 2000, p. xxii
30.
^ Qur'an 41:33
31.
^ Marty 1994, p. 515
32.
^ a b c d e f g h i Barbara, Metcalf (February 27, 1996). "Islam and women:
The case of the Tablighi Jama`at". Stanford University. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
33.
^ Marty 1994, p. 513
34.
^ Alexiev, Alex (Winter 2005). "Tablighi Jamaat: Jihad's Stealthy
Legions". Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved 2007-02-01.
35.
^ "Tableeghi Jamaat leaders denounce gunpoint Sharia". DawnNews.
2009-04-27. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
36.
^ Marty 1994, p. 154
37.
^ a b Marty 1994, p. 516
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
^ Masud 2000, p. 82
^ Marty 1994, p. 156
^ a b Masud 2000, p. 166
^ Masud 2000, p. 27
^ Masud 2000, p. 28
^ Uddin, Sufia M. (2006). Constructing Bangladesh (illustrated ed.). UNC
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^ "Millions of Muslims gather in Bangladesh". Reuters, UK. 2007-02-02.
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^ "600 couples wedded at Ijtema". Daily Times. 21 November 2004.
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^ "Mosque Plans Downsized". BBC News. 2007-03-27. Retrieved 200908-26.
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^ Blake, Daniel (31 July 2007). "Calls to Close London 'Mega-Mosque'
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^ Doward, Jamie (4 September 2006). "Battle to block massive mosque".
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^ Leapman, Ben; Wynne-Jones, Jonathan (21 February 2007).
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^ (ASX) Mosque plans downsized. [Television production]. London,
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51.
^ Sugden, Joanna (6 November 2007). "Video threat to opponent of
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52.
^ Law, Peter (7 November 2006). "Mega-mosque planning deadline
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53.
^ "ScrapMegaMosque - epetition reply". Her Majesty's Government. 19
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^ Rabasa 2004, p. 448
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References
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Agwani, Mohammed (1986). Islamic Fundamentalism in India. Twenty-First
Century India Society. ASIN B0006EPNH0
Ayoob, Mohammed (2007). The many faces of political Islam: religion and
politics in the Muslim world. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472-06971-3. Retrieved 2009-08-10
Ballard, Roger (1994). Desh Pradesh. C. Hurst & Co. ISBN 1-85065-091-8.
Retrieved 2009-08-10
Kepel, Gilles (2004). The war for Muslim minds: Islam and the West. Cambridge,
Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01575-4.
Retrieved 2009-08-10
Marty, Martin E.; R. Scott Appleby (1994). Fundamentalisms observed. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-50878-1. Retrieved 2009-08-10
Rabasa, Angel (2004). The Muslim world after 9/11. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
ISBN 0-8330-3712-9. Retrieved 2009-08-10
Masud, Muhammad Khalid (2000). Travellers in faith. BRILL. p. 268.
ISBN 9004116222. Retrieved 2009-10-02
Roy, Olivier; Antoine Sfeir (2007). The Columbia world dictionary of Islamism.
Columbia University Press. pp. 430. ISBN 023114640X, 9780231146401.
Retrieved 2011-07-30
Marty, Martin E.; R. Scott Appleby (1994). Fundamentalisms observed. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-50878-1. Retrieved 2009-08-10
External links
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Abbey Mills Mosque's Youtube page
Andrew Gilligan on Tablighi Jamaat's role in the building of a new East London
supermosque
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Article in Daily Times
Maulana Tariq Jameel (Also Molana Tariq Jamil) Urdu MP3 Islamic Lectures
Bayans
Excellent website for Lectures/Bayans/Talks associated with Tablighi Jamaat