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Transcript
Chapter 12: The Physical Geography of Europe
Page ______
Section 1: Landforms and Resources
Peninsulas

Europe is a peninsula of peninsulas. Because of this, Europe, the next to smallest continent has a
longer coastline than that of Africa, the world’s second largest continent.

Scandinavian Peninsula. Occupied by the nations of Norway and Sweden, it is bounded by the
Norwegian Sea, the North Sea, and the Baltic Sea.

Jutland Peninsula is directly across the North Sea from Scandinavia. Jutland forms the largest part
of Denmark and a small part of Germany. This peninsula is an extension of a broad plain that
reaches across northern Europe.

Iberian Peninsula is home to Spain and Portugal. The Pyrenees Mountains block off this peninsula
from the rest of Europe.

Italian Peninsula is home to Italy. It is shaped like a boot, extends into the Mediterranean Sea, and
has 4,700 miles of coastline.

Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic, Mediterranean, and Aegean Seas. It is mountainous,
so transportation is difficult.
Islands

Larger Islands of the North Atlantic: Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland and Greenland

Smaller Islands of the Mediterranean: Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, and Crete

All of Europe’s islands have depended upon trade.
Mountains and Uplands

The mountains and uplands of Europe may be viewed as walls because they separate groups of people.

This separation has isolated the peninsula’s various ethnic groups from each other and contributed to the
development of ethnic differences in Europe.
Rivers: Europe’s Links

Rivers are used to transport goods between coastal harbors and the inland regions, aiding economic
growth.
Fertile Plains: Europe’s Bounty

One of the most fertile agricultural regions of the world is the Northern European Plain
 Relatively flat, this plain is very desirable agricultural land that has produced vast quantities of food
over the centuries
 has also allowed armies and groups of invaders to use it as an open route into Europe.
Resources Shape Europe’s Economy
 Has abundant supplies of coal and iron needed for an industrialized economy

Ruhr Valley in Germany, Alsace-Lorraine region of France, and parts of the United Kingdom

Energy

 Because oil and natural gas in the North Sea the United Kingdom exports oil to other nations
Agricultural Land

33% of Europe’s land is suitable for agriculture (world average is 11%)
Resources Shape Life
 Resources in Europe help shape the lives of its people.
 Resources directly affect the foods people eat, the jobs they hold, the houses in which they live, and
even their culture.

Italy has few natural resources so it industrialized later than surrounding countries
Chapter 12: The Physical Geography of Europe Section 2&3
Page ______
Section 2: Climate and Vegetation
Westerly Winds Warm Europe
 Much of Europe has a marine west coast climate

Warm summers and cool winters

Adequate rainfall

Milder than most regions at such a northern latitude

Nearby oceans and the dominant winds create milder climate than expected
 North Atlantic Drift - a current of warm water from the tropics, flows near Europe’s west coast
Harsher Conditions Inland

Inland areas have a humid continental climate

Cold, snowy winters and either warm or hot summers

Adequate rainfall
Sunny Mediterranean
 Mild, Mediterranean climate


Hot, dry summers and moderate, wet winters
Winds

Mistral – a cold dry winds from the north

Sirocco – hot steady south wind
Land of the Midnight Sun
 In lands north of the Arctic Circle

the sun doesn’t set during the middle of the summer

The sun does not rise during the middle of the winter
Section 3: Human-Environment Interaction
Polders: Land from the Sea
 Because more land was needed for the growing population of the Netherlands, the Dutch reclaimed land
from the sea.

Land that is reclaimed by diking and draining is called a polder.

Seaworks, structures that are used to control the sea’s destructive impact on human life


include dikes (hold back the sea) and

terpen (high earthen platforms for safety during floods and high tides
Created the Zuider Zee a fresh water lake that was once part of the North Sea (It is now called
Ijsselmeer)
Waterways for Commerce: Venice’s Canals

Venice is made of about 120 islands and part of mainland Italy


Use canals for transportation
 Located at the north end of the Adriatic Sea – a good site for a port
Venice’s Problems Today

Severe water pollution

Erosion

Algae
A Centuries Old Problem: Deforestation

Deforestation is the clearing of forests from an area


Forests provided wood to burn for fuel and building material for ships and houses
Acid Rain

Pollution in the air combine with water vapor to create acid rain or snow
Chapter 12: The Physical Geography of Europe Section 1
Page ______
Section 1: Landforms and Resources
Peninsulas

Europe is a peninsula of peninsulas. Because of this, Europe, the next to smallest continent has a
______________________ than that of Africa, the world’s second largest continent.

______________________ Peninsula. Occupied by the nations of Norway and Sweden, it is
bounded by the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea, and the Baltic Sea.

___________ Peninsula is directly across the North Sea from Scandinavia. Jutland forms the
largest part of Denmark and a small part of Germany. This peninsula is an extension of a broad
plain that reaches across northern Europe.

___________ Peninsula is home to Spain and Portugal. The Pyrenees Mountains block off this
peninsula from the rest of Europe.

____________ Peninsula is home to Italy. It is shaped like a boot, extends into the Mediterranean
Sea, and has 4,700 miles of coastline.

___________ Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic, Mediterranean, and Aegean Seas. It is
mountainous, so transportation is difficult.
Islands

Larger Islands of the ______________________: Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland and Greenland

Smaller Islands of the ____________________: Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, and Crete

All of Europe’s islands have depended upon _________.
Mountains and Uplands

The mountains and uplands of Europe may be viewed as walls because they ______________________
___________________________.

This separation has isolated the peninsula’s various ethnic groups from each other and contributed to the
development of _______________________ in Europe.
Rivers: Europe’s Links

___________ are used to transport goods between coastal harbors and the inland regions, aiding
economic growth.
Fertile Plains: Europe’s Bounty

One of the most fertile agricultural regions of the world is the _________________________________

Relatively flat, this plain is very desirable __________________________________ that has
produced vast quantities of food over the centuries

has also allowed armies and groups of invaders to use it as _______________________ into Europe.
Resources Shape Europe’s Economy

Has abundant supplies of ____________________ needed for an industrialized economy


Ruhr Valley in Germany, Alsace-Lorraine region of France, and parts of the United Kingdom
Energy

Because ________________________________ in the North Sea the United Kingdom exports oil to
other nations

Agricultural Land

33% of Europe’s land is suitable for ______________________ (world average is 11%)
Resources Shape Life

Resources in Europe help shape the _________________________________.

___________________ directly affect the foods people eat, the jobs they hold, the houses in which they
live, and even their _____________.

Italy has few natural resources so it ____________________ later than surrounding countries
Chapter 12: The Physical Geography of Europe Section 2&3
Page ______
Section 2: Climate and Vegetation
Westerly Winds Warm Europe

Much of Europe has a ___________________________ climate

Warm summers and cool winters

Adequate rainfall

_______________________________________ at such a northern latitude

Nearby ______________ and the dominant _________ create milder climate than expected

_______________________________ - a current of warm water from the tropics, flows near
Europe’s west coast
Harsher Conditions Inland

Inland areas have a _________________________________________

Cold, snowy winters and either warm or hot summers

____________________________
Sunny Mediterranean

Mild, _____________________________ climate


Hot, dry summers and moderate, wet winters
Winds

________________ – a cold dry winds from the north

______________ – hot steady south wind
Land of the Midnight Sun

In lands north of the Arctic Circle

the sun ________________ during the middle of the summer

The sun ____________________ during the middle of the winter
Section 3: Human-Environment Interaction
Polders: Land from the Sea

Because more land was needed for the _____________________________ of the Netherlands, the
Dutch reclaimed land from the sea.

Land that is reclaimed by diking and draining is called a ______________.

__________________, structures that are used to control the sea’s destructive impact on human life


include ___________ (hold back the sea) and

______________ (high earthen platforms for safety during floods and high tides
Created the ______________________ a fresh water lake that was once part of the North Sea (It is
now called Ijsselmeer)
Waterways for Commerce: Venice’s Canals


Venice is made of about ______________________ and part of mainland Italy

Use canals for __________________________

Located at the north end of the Adriatic Sea – a good site for a ____________
Venice’s Problems Today

Severe __________________________

_______________

____________
A Centuries Old Problem: Deforestation

________________________ is the clearing of forests from an area

Forests provided wood to burn for __________ and building material for _____________________
_______________

Acid Rain

Pollution in the air combine with water vapor to create ______________________ or ___________