Ceramics for catalysis
... packed bed operation) or attrition (in reactors involving vigorous agitation). High surface areas can be attained either by fabricating small particles or clusters
where the surface-to-volume ratio of each particle is
high, or by creating materials where the void surface
area (pores) is high compare ...
... the enthalpy of reaction is the difference between product and reactant enthalpies.
the Gibbs free energy is a function of both enthalpy and entropy.
Reaction rate and activation energy of the acidolysis
... 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide solution into a 1000 ml volumetric
flask and filling up to the calibration mark with water.
Fill the burette with 0.2 molar NaOH solution.
Pipette 100 ml of 0.1 molar hydrochloric acid solution into an
Erlenmeyer flask, seal it with a stopper, and temperature equilibrate i ...
Wanganui High School
... o Increase in temperature favours the endothermic reaction
o Decrease in temperature favours the exothermic reaction
o Increase in conc. of a reactant (or decrease in concentration of a product)
favours the formation of product / shifts equilibrium position to the right
o Decrease in conc. of a reac ...
... Indicator: Discuss why most chemical reactions do not proceed to completion
Some chemical reactions proceed to completion:
CH4 + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O
reaction goes until all of the reactant is converted to product
Most reactions do not go to completion:
Grade XII Foreign SET 2 Chemistry (Theory)
... In N2, the two nitrogen atoms form a triple bond. This triple bond has very high bond strength,
which is very difficult to break. It is because of nitrogen’s small size that it is able to form p–
p bonds with itself. This property is not exhibited by phosphorus.
(ii)Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is k ...
MSTA WOW Chemistry
... 1. Mix some water and food coloring in a plastic cup
2. If you lamp oil is green like the rubbing alcohol, then you need to add a
different shade of food coloring to a small amount in a plastic cup.
3. Pour about 10 mL of Honey down the center of the graduated cylinder and try not to let it run down ...
... In dilute solutions, the activity coefficient approaches unity. Often,
experimental conditions allow us to assume activity coefficients of
one so that concentrations can be substituted for activities.
(This assumption isn’t always good!)
Exam 1 Key
... K = PCO PH23 / PCH4 PH2O
K = (0.18)(0.01)3 / (1)(1) = 1.8 × 10 -‐7
(b) What is ΔG° for this reaction at 600 K? (3 pts)
ΔG° = -RT ln K = -(8.314 J mol-1 K-1)(600 K) ln 1.8 × 10-7 = 77.5 kJ mol-1
(c) Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic? Explain how you know. (3 pts)
ΔG = ΔH - T ΔS where ΔG a ...
... At 150C the decomposition of acetaldehyde CH3CHO to methane is a first order reaction. If the rate
constant for the reaction at 150C is 0.029 min-1, how long does it take a concentration of 0.050 mol
L-1 of acetaldehyde to reduce to a concentration of 0.040 mol L-1?
Question paper - Unit A173/02 - Module C7 - Higher tier
... whose work is used in this paper. To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced in the OCR Copyright
Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download from our p ...
Chapter 17 - saddlespace.org
... (-) H
XI. Reaction Rates
Chemical kinetics: study of reaction rates and reaction mechanisms
Reaction rate: the change in the concentration of REACTANTS per unit of time.
Since the nature of reactant collisions determine how often reactions occur, changing the frequency and
energy of these collisi ...
Rate of Reaction
... At some time, we observe that the reaction 2 N2O5 (g) → 4 NO2 (g) + O2 (g) is forming NO2 at the rate of 0.0072 mol / L∙s.
(a) What is the rate of change of [O2], ∆ [O2]/ ∆t in mol / L∙s?
(b) What is the rate of change of [N2O5], ∆ [N2O5]/ ∆t in mol / L∙s?
Annexure `CD-01` L T P/S SW/FW TOTAL CREDIT UNITS 3 1 2 0 5
... This course gives and overall view on the various areas related to physical chemistry like chemical kinetics, colloidal state, adsorption
etc which have great relevance in practical applications. The practical course is designed for imparting the knowledge of general
principles of physical chemistry ...
Equilibrium (Sheet 1)
... H2 + CO2 + heat. If no stress is introduced into this system, then the concentration of H 2O,
CO, H2, and CO2 will not change. Now then, assume the concentration of H2O was increased, then effectively the
number of collisions between H2O molecules and CO molecules are increased, resulting in an incr ...
EETopic Coversheet Word document
... which takes in heat (endothermic) for a reaction at equilibrium
Know that an increase in concentration of reactants will favour
the forward reaction (towards the products) for a reaction at
in a Chemical Reactor - Max-Planck
... benzene passes through many different reactors, mixing first with hydrogen and, afterwards, with oxygen.
This last step is especially dangerous.
The reaction carried out in the last
step went out of control at the chemical plant in Flixborough, England, in
1974. The reactor exploded and 28
people di ...
CHM222A: Basic Physical Chemistry
... Haber-Bosch Ammonia synthesis – illustrates thermodynamics,
kinetics, gas transport processes, reaction dynamics, catalysis,
Water phase diagram– illustrates phase equilibrium, molecular
motions, solvation, electrolytic effects
Kinesin molecular motors – illustrates irreversible pr ...
... Reaction temperature 350-450 oC, Fe/Cr-catalyst, CO < 3 vol. %
3.b. Low-temperature conversion
Reaction temperature 200-225 oC, Cu/Zn-catalyst, CO < 0.2 vol. %
This reaction is carried out in two steps with intermediate heat removal.
Initially, the process gas is passed through a bed of iron oxide/c ...
The chemical master equation
... Boltzmann’s Stosszahlansatz (assumption of molecular chaos):
Collisions cause a rapid loss of memory, i.e. particle
trajectories can be treated as essentially random.
Consequence: Chemical reactions can be treated as Markov
(memoryless) processes, provided the Stosszahlansatz
This in t ...
The first time a catalyst was used in the industry was in 1746 by J. Roebuck in the manufacture of lead chamber sulfuric acid. Since then catalysts have been in use in a large portion of the chemical industry. In the start only pure components were used as catalysts, but after the year 1900 multicomponent catalysts were studied and are now commonly used in the industry today.In the chemical industry and industrial research, catalysis play an important role. Different catalysts are in constant development to fulfill economic, political and environmental demands. When using a catalyst it is possible to replace a polluting chemical reaction with a more environmentally friendly alternative. Today, and in the future, this can be vital for the chemical industry. In addition it’s important for a company/researcher to pay attention to market development. If a company’s catalyst is not continually improved, another company can make progress in research on that particular catalyst and gain market share. For a company, a new and improved catalyst can be a huge advantage for a competitive manufacturing cost. It’s extremely expensive for a company to shut down the plant because of an error in the catalyst, so the correct selection of a catalyst or a new improvement can be key to industrial success. To achieve the best understanding and development of a catalyst it is important that different special fields work together. These fields can be: organic chemistry, analytic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, chemical engineers and surface chemistry. The economics must also be taken into account. One of the issues that must be considered is if the company should use money on doing the catalyst research themselves or buy the technology from someone else. As the analytical tools are becoming more advanced, the catalysts used in the industry are improving. One example of an improvement can be to develop a catalyst with a longer lifetime than the previous version. Some of the advantages an improved catalyst gives, that affects people’s lives, are: cheaper and more effective fuel, new drugs and medications and new polymers. Some of the large chemical processes that use catalysis today are the production of methanol and ammonia. Both methanol and ammonia synthesis take advantage of the water-gas shift reaction and heterogeneous catalysis, while other chemical industries use homogenous catalysis. If the catalyst exists in the same phase as the reactants it is said to be homogenous; otherwise it is heterogeneous.