Radiative Forcing of Climate Change
... evidence from model studies, however, that λ can be substantially different for certain forcing types. Reiterating the IPCC
WGI Second Assessment Report (IPCC, 1996a) (hereafter
SAR), the global mean forcing estimates are not necessarily
indicators of the detailed aspects of the potential climate
ozone pollution - the ICP Vegetation
... greenhouse gas, after CO2 and methane. In contrast to CO2 and halocarbons, ozone is a short-lived
greenhouse gas, so any reductions in ground-level ozone production will reduce atmospheric ozone
concentrations within months and hence reduce its contribution to global warming. Long-lived
greenhouse g ...
CDP`s 2016 Climate Change Scoring Methodology
... addition, verification needs to cover at least 70% of total Scope 1 and 2 emissions with no significant relevant exclusions (reported in CC8.4). Gross Scope 1
and Scope 2 emission figures need to also be reported (in CC8.2 and 8.3a respectively).
If maximum possible points are scored at Disclosure l ...
Moose Listing Petition - Center for Biological Diversity
... Pleistocene era some 14,000 years ago. Standing six feet tall, it has evolved into the largest
member of the deer family, but unlike deer, it is specifically adapted to cold environments, with
thick insulating fur to survive freezing temperatures, and long legs and wide feet to move easily
through d ...
... endangerment finding for automobiles, it will be
required to issue emissions standards. These types
of standards—which are command‐and‐control
rather than market‐based—could ultimately reduce
the efficiency of a cap‐and‐trade system. Under cap‐
and‐trade, the total economy‐ ...
REDD+ politics in the media - Center for International Forestry
... and resource ownership rights. There were debates
on how REDD+ and conservation will improve
economic growth and boost livelihood conditions.
As the country was getting more and more of a
grip on what REDD+ is all about, the discourse
started to shift between scales; media started to get
curious abo ...
taking stock - Oxfam International
... Ten affiliates1 as well as the OI secretariat contributed evaluations commissioned by them
to this exercise; in many instances, the evaluations covered efforts that crossed affiliatespecific boundaries to ‘One Oxfam’ efforts. The evaluations covered countries in all Oxfam
regions. It is not possible ...
Climate Change Effects and Adaptation Approaches in Marine and
... ranges toward the poles.91 The abundance and distribution of jumbo squid in the NPLCC region increased
between 2002 and 2006, with sightings as far north as southeast Alaska.92 Loggerhead turtle, brown
pelican, and sunfish are reported recent arrivals to the northern Washington coast.93
Climate chan ...
Effects of climate change on infectious diseases
... • Today’s climate-malaria prevalence models are
calibrated to regions with endemic malaria. These are
not suitable for assessment of the malaria transition
• Will there be far-reaching technological advances?
• Where people prosper will they devote resources to
• Whe ...
Economics of global warming
There are a number of policies that governments might consider in response to global warming. The assessment of such policies involves the economics of global warming.Global warming is a long-term problem. One of the most important greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. Around 20% of carbon dioxide which is emitted due to human activities can remain in the atmosphere for many thousands of years. The long time scales and uncertainty associated with global warming have led analysts to develop ""scenarios"" of future environmental, social and economic changes. These scenarios can help governments understand the potential consequences of their decisions.The impacts of climate change include the loss of biodiversity, sea level rise, increased frequency and severity of some extreme weather events, and acidification of the oceans. Economists have attempted to quantify these impacts in monetary terms, but these assessments can be controversial.The two main policy responses to global warming are to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (climate change mitigation) and to adapt to the impacts of global warming (e.g., by building levees in response to sea level rise). Another policy response which has recently received greater attention is geoengineering of the climate system (e.g. injecting aerosols into the atmosphere to reflect sunlight away from the Earth's surface).One of the responses to the uncertainties of global warming is to adopt a strategy of sequential decision making. This strategy recognizes that decisions on global warming need to be made with incomplete information, and that decisions in the near term will have potentially long-term impacts. Governments might choose to use risk management as part of their policy response to global warming. For instance, a risk-based approach can be applied to climate impacts which are difficult to quantify in economic terms, e.g., the impacts of global warming on indigenous peoples.Analysts have assessed global warming in relation to sustainable development. Sustainable development considers how future generations might be affected by the actions of the current generation. In some areas, policies designed to address global warming may contribute positively towards other development objectives. In other areas, the cost of global warming policies may divert resources away from other socially and environmentally beneficial investments (the opportunity costs of climate change policy).