... Enzymes that hydrolyse nucleic acids are called NUCLEASES.
Some nucleases can hydrolyse linkages between 2 adjacent nucleotides at internal positions in the DNA or RNA strand and
proceed stepwise from that end. Such nucleases are called ENDONUCLEASES.
Another class of nucleases can hydrolyse only th ...
highly specific nucleases for gene targeting and
... chimeric nucleases and allow to specifically modify genomes e.g. for
biotechnological or gene therapeutic applications. The high specificity and
preference of the new chimeric nucleases is based on a fusion of TALE proteins
as DNA binding modules with a highly specific restriction endonuclease, PvuI ...
Chapter Objectives: Chapter 20 Biotechnology
... production, and development of pharmaceutical products
16. Describe how gene manipulation has practical applications for agriculture
17. Describe ho plant genes can be manipulated using the Ti plasmid carried by
Agrobacterium as a vector
18. Explain how foreign DNA may be transferred into o monocoty ...
PART 4 - Mutations and Genetic Recombination
... have once been independent prokaryotic cells
• According to the endosymbiont theory; they
were engulfed by larger cells and have coevolved through a mutualistic relationship
Chapter 13 - Auburn CUSD 10
... What do you do with the DNA now?
Scientists attach dye to the nitrogenous
bases. When the base is used in
replication, it terminates the strand.
Then the dye-tagged fragments are
separated using gel electrophoresis.
Using this method, researchers can
determine DNA sequences and study an
Topic 4.4 genetic engineering
... in a separation according to size. One can also remove
segments of DNA from the gel for further analysis once
they are sorted by size.
Restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA in specific
places. These enzymes were discovered years ago in
Unit 10: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, DNA NGSS Priority
... 4. What are current uses of transgenic organisms?
5. What steps are required to transform E.coli using the pGLO plasmid?
6. How can protein structure be manipulated?
7. How can hydrophobic nature of polypeptide chains be used to purify proteins?
8. How is protein production regulated as modeled by o ...
... In nature, bacteria use restriction enzymes to cut foreign DNA, such as from
phages or other bacteria. Methylation, methyl groups inserted at
recognition sites block restriction enzymes from cutting bacterial DNA, a
covalent modification and in vertebrates is an indicator that distinguished
Questions to help study for test 1
... b. Red blood cells are a good source of DNA
c. Footprinting is a useful method for forensic identification
d. DNA has a net negative charge and moves towards the positive electrode
2. The complement of the following sequence ATGCCCGTGTGGAGGTTTTA is:
3. The restriction enzyme BIG1 recognises the doub ...
Recombinant DNA and gene cloning To use an unique feature(s) of
... Strategy: 1) break up the DNA; 2) separated each fragement into a unique locations
(library); 3) screen your gene out from the library.
1) restriction endonuclease (restriction enzymes, recognize and make a stagger cut at a
symmetric DNA sequence of 4-8 bp)
2) DNA Ligase
3) bacterial plasmid ( ...
... • Solid phase synthesis of nucleic acids;
• The polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
... Nucleic Acids
• Store and transmit genetic information.
• Come in two forms DNA and RNA
• RNA has ribose sugar, is single stranded and comes in
three forms mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. It is made from the
nucleotides Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Uracil
• DNA has deoxyribose sugar and is a double strand
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cuts DNA at or near specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites. Restriction enzymes are commonly classified into three types, which differ in their structure and whether they cut their DNA substrate at their recognition site, or if the recognition and cleavage sites are separate from one another. To cut DNA, all restriction enzymes make two incisions, once through each sugar-phosphate backbone (i.e. each strand) of the DNA double helix.These enzymes are found in bacteria and archaea and provide a defense mechanism against invading viruses. Inside a prokaryote, the restriction enzymes selectively cut up foreign DNA in a process called restriction; while host DNA is protected by a modification enzyme (a methyltransferase) that modifies the prokaryotic DNA and blocks cleavage. Together, these two processes form the restriction modification system.Over 3000 restriction enzymes have been studied in detail, and more than 600 of these are available commercially. These enzymes are routinely used for DNA modification in laboratories, and are a vital tool in molecular cloning.