Midway Atoll (/ˈmɪdweɪ/; also called Midway Island and Midway Islands; Hawaiian: Pihemanu Kauihelani) is a 2.4-square-mile (6.2 km2) atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. As its name suggests, Midway is roughly equidistant between North America and Asia, and lies almost halfway around the world longitudinally from Greenwich, UK. It is near the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago, about one-third of the way from Honolulu, Hawaii, to Tokyo, Japan.Midway Atoll is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States, and the former home of the Naval Air Facility Midway (former ICAO PMDY). For statistical purposes, Midway is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands. It is less than 140 nautical miles (259 km; 161 mi) east of the International Date Line, about 2,800 nautical miles (5,200 km; 3,200 mi) west of San Francisco, and 2,200 nautical miles (4,100 km; 2,500 mi) east of Tokyo. The Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, encompassing 590,991.50 acres (239,165.77 ha) of land and water (mostly water) in the surrounding area, is administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Approximately 40 to 60 members of the Service live on the Atoll.The Battle of Midway, which was fought between June 4 and 6, 1942, was one of the most important battles of the Pacific campaign. The United States Navy defeated a Japanese battle group marking a turning point in the war in the Pacific Theater. USAAF aircraft based at the original Henderson Field on Eastern Island joined the attack against the Japanese fleet, which suffered losses of four carriers and one heavy cruiser.Travel to the atoll in 2013 was not possible even through organized tour companies or as a Fish and Wildlife Service volunteer. Due to cuts in the US government's 2013 fiscal budget, visitor and volunteer programs have been suspended. The visitor program (which reopened the atoll to visitors in January 2008) hosted 332 visitors in 2012. The tours have focused on the ecology of Midway and its military history. The economy is derived solely from governmental sources and tourist fees. All food and manufactured goods are imported. The refuge and most of its surrounding area are part of the larger Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.