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Step Up To: Psychology
by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
Psychology, Eighth Edition
By David G. Myers
Worth Publishers
(2007)
Chapter 18: Social Psychology
Conform
You’ve got an Attitude
It’s just natural.
Social Thinking
Do the right thing.
56
55
57
58
Social Thinking
500
400
300
200
100
You’ve got attitude.
500
400
300
200
100
Conform
500
400
300
200
100
It’s just natural.
500
400
300
200
100
Do the right thing.
500
400
300
200
100
1. While watching a homeless person beg on
the street corner, George thinks, “He must be
lazy. If he would just get a job, he wouldn’t
have to beg.” It is likely George is illustrating:
•
•
•
•
A) good judgment.
B) fundamental attribution error.
C) political bias.
D) stereotyping.
2. Asking for a small favor to increase
your chances of being successful when
asking for a larger one later is called:
•
•
•
•
A) bait-and-switch technique.
B) a con-artist strategy.
C) attitude adjustment.
D) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
3. Phillip Zimbardo conducted the Stanford
Prison Experiment in the 70’s. His results could
have predicted problems of prisoner abuse at
Abu Ghraib in that:
• A) people will follow direct orders of a
superior when in the military.
• B) when we play a role long enough, social
norms can be as powerful as orders.
• C) we will easily scapegoat those different
from ourselves.
• D) people can not resist pressure to
perform evil action.
4. When we experience _____, we feel
tension when our actions do not coincide
with our beliefs.
•
•
•
•
A) cognitive dissonance.
B) actor-observer discrepancy.
C) personal perception.
D) self-serving bias.
5. When we experience cognitive
dissonance, the response is most
often:
• A) to change our behavior to agree with our
attitudes.
• B) depression and self hatred.
• C) to change our attitudes in the direction
of our behavior.
• D) to feel extremely guilty for acting
against our beliefs.
6. Solomon Asch’s experiment about how
perceptions may be influenced by others
resulted in:
• A) more than a third of the people changing
their opinions to agree with others.
• B) most people changing their opinions to
agree with others.
• C) most everyone ignored what others said.
• D) a small minority changed their opinions to
agree with others.
7. For teens, it is especially important to
dress and act like their peers in order to
be accepted by the group. This
pressure to conform is called:
•
•
•
•
A) informational social influence.
B) ethnocentrism.
C) out-group homogeneity.
D) normative social influence.
8. The results of Milgram’s experiment
found:
• A) the subjects who continued knew it
wasn’t real.
• B) most subjects discontinued when
shock levels became extreme.
• C) most subjects continued to deliver
the highest level of shock.
• D) subjects had to be threatened to
deliver dangerous levels of shock.
9. Further experiments by Milgram helped to
identify factors influencing the outcome of
destructive obedience. These included all of
the following except:
• A) they volunteered to participate.
• B) being told the learners were not really
being harmed.
• C) the repetitive escalation of the task.
• D) the situation, or context, in which the
obedience occurred.
10. Milgram did not require his
subjects to shock people at the highest
level at the beginning, but to build up to
it. He used the:
•
•
•
•
A) cognitive dissonance theory.
B) foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C) normative social influence.
D) social exchange theory.
11. According to social facilitation, if you
are a professional golfer, you are likely to
perform better if:
• A) you are playing alone with a friendly
audience.
• B) no one is watching.
• C) you are playing by yourself.
• D) you are playing against competition
with a friendly audience.
12. When people are working in a group
on a project rather than individually, there
is likely to be less effort by some, called:
•
•
•
•
A) social loafing.
B) competition.
C) self-serving bias.
D) cognitive dissonance.
13. When a group’s goal of harmony takes
precedence over rational decisionmaking, they become involved in the
process of:
•
•
•
•
A) social cognition.
B) group polarization.
C) group think.
D) fundamental attribution error.
14. An example of group polarization
is:
• A) conservatives become more extreme after
listening to conservative talk radio.
• B) people believing they were abducted
become more convinced after chatting on the
internet with other abductees.
• C) prejudiced individuals get together and
become more prejudiced.
• D) all of the above.
15. When people lose themselves when in
an angry mob, this illustrates the process
of:
•
•
•
•
A) self-serving bias.
B) deindividuation.
C) group think.
D) actor-observer discrepancy.
16. Prejudice is defined as:
• A) taking negative action toward people
who belong to a different social group.
• B) speaking badly about people who
belong to a different social group.
• C) an unjustifiable attitude toward a group
and its members.
• D) all of the above.
17. The _____ theory offers an
explanation that prejudice offers an outlet
for anger by providing someone to blame.
•
•
•
•
A) scapegoat
B) prejudice
C) underdog
D) out-group
18. Rape victims are sometimes blamed for
wearing too revealing clothes and, “getting
what they deserved.” This false conclusion is
based on:
•
•
•
•
A) the just-world hypothesis.
B) fundamental attribution error.
C) social categorization.
D) social exchange theory.
19. Recent experiments of men viewing
violent pornography conclude:
• A) this can serve to provide an outlet for
bottled-up feelings, thus reducing violent
acts.
• B) this increases violent acts toward women.
• C) there is no effect from viewing violent
pornography.
• D) men viewing such films are quickly
repulsed by such images.
20. “By pursuing our own self-interests
and not trusting others, we can end up
losers.” This statement is illustrated in:
•
•
•
•
A) the Jigsaw Classroom.
B) the in-group, out-group study.
C) Zimbardo’s prison experiment.
D) the social trap game.
21. The deep, affectionate attachment in
a lasting, mature love is called:
•
•
•
•
A) passionate love.
B) marital bliss.
C) companionate love.
D) altruism.
22. Your text mentions two key ingredients
to a lasting, loving relationship. One is
equity, the other is:
•
•
•
•
A) attractiveness.
B) compassion.
C) self-disclosure.
D) acceptance.
23. Kitty Genovese was killed while others
watched and listened. They knew others were
watching. Their behavior is explained the:
• A) apathy theory.
• B) prosocial behavior
phenomenon.
• C) altruism.
• D) bystander effect.
24: According to the bystander effect, if
you needed help you would be more
likely to get it if:
•
•
•
•
A) many people were present.
B) few people were present.
C) someone else was also helping.
D) no one knew you.
25. According to social exchange theory:
• A) we will help if we expect something
in return.
• B) we will help if the cost of helping is
not too high.
• C) when we help others we expect
them to help us.
• D) we help those who we feel are
most deserving.
Stop here, or continue as a review
1. While watching a homeless person beg on
the street corner, George thinks, “He must be
lazy. If he would just get a job, he wouldn’t
have to beg.” It is likely George is illustrating:
•
•
•
•
A) good judgment.
B) fundamental attribution error.
C) political bias.
D) stereotyping.
724
2. Asking for a small favor to increase
your chances of being successful when
asking for a larger one later is called:
•
•
•
•
A) bait-and-switch technique.
B) a con-artist strategy.
C) attitude adjustment.
D) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
727
3. Phillip Zimbardo conducted the Stanford
Prison Experiment in the 70’s. His results could
have predicted problems of prisoner abuse at
Abu Ghraib in that:
• A) people will follow direct orders of a
superior when in the military.
• B) when we play a role long enough, social
norms can be as powerful as orders.
• C) we will easily scapegoat those different
from ourselves.
• D) people can not resist pressure to
perform evil action.
732
4. When we experience _____, we feel
tension when our actions do not coincide
with our beliefs.
•
•
•
•
A) cognitive dissonance.
B) actor-observer discrepancy.
C) personal perception.
D) self-serving bias.
728
5. When we experience cognitive
dissonance, the response is most
often:
• A) to change our behavior to agree with our
attitudes.
• B) depression and self hatred.
• C) to change our attitudes in the direction
of our behavior.
• D) to feel extremely guilty for acting
against our beliefs.
728
6. Solomon Asch’s experiment about how
perceptions may be influenced by others
resulted in:
• A) more than a third of the people changing
their opinions to agree with others.
• B) most people changing their opinions to
agree with others.
• C) most everyone ignored what others said.
• D) a small minority changed their opinions to
agree with others.
737
7. For teens, it is especially important to
dress and act like their peers in order to
be accepted by the group. This
pressure to conform is called:
•
•
•
•
A) informational social influence.
B) ethnocentrism.
C) out-group homogeneity.
D) normative social influence.
733
8. The results of Milgram’s experiment
found:
• A) the subjects who continued knew it
wasn’t real.
• B) most subjects discontinued when
shock levels became extreme.
• C) most subjects continued to deliver
the highest level of shock.
• D) subjects had to be threatened to
deliver dangerous levels of shock.
736
9. Further experiments by Milgram helped to
identify factors influencing the outcome of
destructive obedience. These included all of
the following except:
• A) they volunteered to participate.
• B) being told the learners were not really
being harmed.
• C) the repetitive escalation of the task.
• D) the situation, or context, in which the
obedience occurred.
736
10. Milgram did not require his
subjects to shock people at the highest
level at the beginning, but to build up to
it. He used the:
•
•
•
•
A) cognitive dissonance theory.
B) foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C) normative social influence.
D) social exchange theory.
727
11. According to social facilitation, if you
are a professional golfer, you are likely to
perform better if:
• A) you are playing alone with a friendly
audience.
• B) no one is watching.
• C) you are playing by yourself.
• D) you are playing against competition
with a friendly audience.
738
12. When people are working in a group
on a project rather than individually, there
is likely to be less effort by some, called:
•
•
•
•
A) social loafing.
B) competition.
C) self-serving bias.
D) cognitive dissonance.
739
13. When a group’s goal of harmony takes
precedence over rational decisionmaking, they become involved in the
process of:
•
•
•
•
A) social cognition.
B) group polarization.
C) group think.
D) fundamental attribution error.
740
14. An example of group polarization
is:
• A) conservatives become more extreme after
listening to conservative talk radio.
• B) people believing they were abducted
become more convinced after chatting on the
internet with other abductees.
• C) prejudiced individuals get together and
become more prejudiced.
• D) all of the above.
740
15. When people lose themselves when in
an angry mob, this illustrates the process
of:
•
•
•
•
A) self-serving bias.
B) deindividuation.
C) group think.
D) actor-observer discrepancy.
739
16. Prejudice is defined as:
• A) taking negative action toward people
who belong to a different social group.
• B) speaking badly about people who
belong to a different social group.
• C) an unjustifiable attitude toward a group
and its members.
• D) all of the above.
743
17. The _____ theory offers an
explanation that prejudice offers an outlet
for anger by providing someone to blame.
•
•
•
•
A) scapegoat
B) prejudice
C) underdog
D) out-group
747
18. Rape victims are sometimes blamed for
wearing too revealing clothes and, “getting
what they deserved.” This false conclusion is
based on:
•
•
•
•
A) the just-world hypothesis.
B) fundamental attribution error.
C) social categorization.
D) social exchange theory.
748
19. Recent experiments of men viewing
violent pornography conclude:
• A) this can serve to provide an outlet for
bottled-up feelings, thus reducing violent
acts.
• B) this increases violent acts toward women.
• C) there is no effect from viewing violent
pornography.
• D) men viewing such films are quickly
repulsed by such images.
754
20. “By pursuing our own self-interests
and not trusting others, we can end up
losers.” This statement is illustrated in:
•
•
•
•
A) the Jigsaw Classroom.
B) the in-group, out-group study.
C) Zimbardo’s prison experiment.
D) the social trap game.
757
21. The deep, affectionate attachment in
a lasting, mature love is called:
•
•
•
•
A) passionate love.
B) marital bliss.
C) companionate love.
D) altruism.
763
22. Your text mentions two key ingredients
to a lasting, loving relationship. One is
equity, the other is:
•
•
•
•
A) attractiveness.
B) compassion.
C) self-disclosure.
D) acceptance.
764
23. Kitty Genovese was killed while others
watched and listened. They knew others were
watching. Their behavior is explained the:
• A) apathy theory.
• B) prosocial behavior
phenomenon.
• C) altruism.
• D) bystander effect.
766
24: According to the bystander effect, if
you needed help you would be more
likely to get it if:
•
•
•
•
A) many people were present.
B) few people were present.
C) someone else was also helping.
D) no one knew you.
766
25. According to social exchange theory:
• A) we will help if we expect something in
return.
• B) we will help if the cost of helping is
not too high.
• C) when we help others we expect them
to help us.
• D) we help those who we feel are
most deserving.
766
Acknowledgements
• Step Up Created by:
– John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
• Based on Psychology,
Eighth Edition in
Modules
• By David G. Myers
• Published by
• Worth Publishers
(2007)
Answers
1.
B
9.
D
17.
A
2.
D
10.
B
18.
A
3.
B
11.
D
19.
B
4.
A
12.
A
20.
D
5.
C
13.
C
21.
C
6.
B
14.
D
22.
C
7.
D
15.
B
23.
D
8.
C
16.
C
24.
B
25.
B
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