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A Global View: Early Civilizations Part 1: focuses on the beginnings of civilization to the rise of ancient Egypt, the ancient Middle East, and the growth of civilizations in India and China. Terms and People • Prehistory is the period before the invention and use of writing. • Anthropology is the study of the origins and development of people and their societies. • Anthropologists investigate how culture has changed since prehistoric times. • Culture refers to a society’s beliefs, values, and practices. Terms and People • Old Stone Age – the era of prehistory from 2 million B.C. to around 10,000 B.C. • Paleolithic Period – the Old Stone Age period. • New Stone Age – the period from 10,000 B.C. to the end of prehistory. • Neolithic • nomad Period – the New Stone Age period. – person who moves from place to place. • animism – the belief that spirits and forces reside in animals, objects, or dreams. Terms and People • Neolithic Revolution – the transition from nomadic life to settled farming. • domesticate – to raise plants or animals in a controlled way that makes them best suited for human use. • Çatalhüyük – an early Neolithic village (around 7000 B.C.) unearthed in modern-day Turkey. • Jericho – walled Neolithic village (around 10,000– 9000 B.C.) which exists today as an Israeli-controlled city. Terms and People • surplus – more than is necessary • traditional economy – an economy that relies on habit, custom, or ritual and tends not to change over time. • civilization • steppe – a complex, highly organized social order. – sparse, dry grassland. • polytheistic – believing in many gods. Terms and People • artisan – a skilled craftsperson. • pictograph – a simple drawing that looks like the object it represents; first step toward writing. • scribe – a person specially trained to read and write. • cultural diffusion – the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. • city-state – political unit that included a city and the surrounding lands and villages. • empire – a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler. Before the 1950s anthropologists knew little about early humans and their ancestors. Prehistoric groups didn’t have: • Cities • Countries • Central governments • Complex inventions Early modern humans migrated (nomads) to all parts of the world. The Earliest Civilizations How did the worlds earliest civilizations arise and develop? - Farming - Most civilizations arose near major rivers. - Economy and work in early civilizations / cities changed from the time of the stone age to the emergence of cities. The first civilizations arose along the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, and Huang Rivers. The first civilizations not to form around rivers • The Olmec and Maya of Mexico and Central America filled in swamps. • The Incas emerged in the highlands of Peru, where they farmed on mountainsides. Eight basic features of early civilizations. Cities 2) Organized Government 3) Complex Religion 4) Job Specialization 5) Social Classes 6) Art and Architecture 7) Public Works 8) Writing 1) # 1 cities • Cities began to form as result of farming. • Nomads became settlers •Forming: villages • Farming – cities – civilizations – Empires. also allowed for surpluses which allowed for the population to expand. # 2 Organized Government • The challenge of farming river valleys contributed to the formation of organized governments. • To control flooding • Oversee irrigation to crops • Over time some city governments became powerful and more complex. • This led to bureaucracies. # 3 Complex Religion • The Egyptians for example worshiped many gods and goddesses. • They build tombs to preserve their bodies for the after life. • Performed rituals • The Aryans also believed in many gods (polytheistic) • Believed in spiritual power beyond the many gods (brahman). • In China they believed in many gods and nature spirits. • Much of their spiritual focus was on honoring and respecting their ancestry. Also believe in the balancing of forces Yin and Yang. # 4 Job Specialization • Because of the development of cities people were able to work in jobs other than farming. • Skilled craft workers • Traders • Scribes # 5 Social Classes • Social organization became more complex and people were ranked according to their jobs. • Priest and Nobles – usually at the top • Wealthy merchants • Artisans or •Below “skilled craft workers” these class stood the majority of people •Peasant farmers to slaves # 6 Art and Architecture • The building of communities. • Egyptians built the pyramids, tombs, and sculptures. • The Hebrews in Israel built a temple dedicated to God in Jerusalem. • India / Indus River Valley • Had a complex city lay out, plumbing system, and sewer system. • China – Through created sculptures and everyday useful items with bronze (they were masters at this craft). # 7 Public Works • Irrigation for farming • City building projects • Egyptians – built the pyramids • Indus River Valley – built complex plumbing and sewer systems. • Water projects – In China whoever controlled the rivers which were the main routes for travel and trade had the power. # 8 Writing • The earliest form of writing or recorded information was pictographs. • Writing likely became necessary as society became more complex with the need to record information about crops and other important society and government information. • Writing was usually performed by specifically trained individuals know as scribes generally for purpose of keeping records for the kingdom.