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Chapter 1 The Beginnings of Human Society Section 1 Geography and History Understanding History /Before and After Writing 1. The first system of writing was developed about ________________ years ago in __________________________ and ____________________. 2. History then formally began. 3. History- _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________. 4. Long ago, people lived with no way of recording information or preserving stories. 5. Prehistory - ____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________. Prehistory: Digging Up the Past 1. When studying Prehistory, Archaeology is a very helpful tool. 2. Archaeologists- _________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ QUESTION: The size of a spear can tell you a lot about the people who used it. What types of things do you think can be learned? History: A Record in Writing / A Record of the Spoken Word 1. Studying written records or human life and accomplishments help us understand a society. 2. What examples of written records in our world today? Make a brief list. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Examples – we can learn about ______________________, ____________________________, and _____________________________. 4. Prior to writing, a system of storytelling existed known as oral tradition. 5. Oral Tradition – _________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Section 2 – Prehistory Stone Age Hunting and Gathering - Earliest Human Culture 1. By studying tools, we can learn about the development of human culture…How? 2. 2.5 million years ago- early humans begin making tools, which began the Stone Age. 3. Stone Age- _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Lasted for hundreds of thousands of years, when metal began to be used. 5. In the Old Stone Age, people did not know how to __________________________. 6. Hunter-gatherer culture – _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. __________________________ occurred in the Old Stone Age. Fire! 1. Between about _________________________________ and ___________________________ years ago, early humans learned how to use fire. 2. Possibly caused by a lightning strike. 3. There were many uses for fire. For example, _________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________. 4. Fully grasped the power of fire when they rubbed two sticks together to create fire at will. 5. People could then travel to colder places to live. Why? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________. Settling New Areas 1. With tools, people started leaving Africa about 1,000,000 years ago. 2. Prior to this, people were nomads who moved around for food. o Nomads – _____________________________________________________________. 3. There is evidence that human ancestors were living in _____________________ and _______________________________ at least 500,000 years ago. 4. Many scientists believe that modern humans originated more than 100,000 years ago in ___________________________ and then spread to other parts of the world. 5. Humans were few in number, but lived in all types of geographical conditions. The Beginning of Farming / Early Farmers 1. Middle Stone Age- ______________________________________________________________. 2. New Stone Age- ________________________________________________________________. 3. People could grow their own food. How did this change human life? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Farming Around the World 1. Some places in the world are better for farming than others, often due to quality of fertile soil. 2. Fertile – _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________. 3. Describe important factors for farming. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Plant Selection 1. When people began to plant crops, they chose the biggest, best-tasting ones, and began to domesticate them. 2. Domesticate – _________________________________________________________________. 3. Humans also began developing techniques for more successful farming. Terraces – step-like areas dug into steep mountains to plant crops on. Crop Rotation – planting crops on different fields to keep the soil fresh. Section 3 THE BEGINNINGS OF CIVILIZATION 1. Irrigation- ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________. Advantages of a Settled Life 1. More benefits came from farming compared to hunting and gathering. o ________________________________________________________________________ o Surplus- ________________________________________________________________. The Population Grows 1. Larger families began to appear due to the non-nomadic lifestyle. 2. 10,000 years ago, the world population was about _________________________________. 3. 7,000 years ago, with farming, the population was as much as ___________________________. Early Towns and Villages 1. Settlements eventually grew into ______________________. 2. Why would surpluses affect families? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ The Growth of Cities 1. Where were cities most likely to grow? Why was this? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ __ The Earliest Cities 1. Most of the first cities formed in ______________________, __________________________, and ________________________________. 2. What factors make cities different than towns? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. In villages, most people were _______________________________. In cities, most people worked in __________________________ and other new occupations. Governments Form 1. As populations of cities grew, governments began to form. 2. The purpose of government was ___________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________. 3. Governments also settled __________________________________ and ___________________ __________________________________________________________. The First Civilizations Form 1. Some of these New Stone Age societies grew into civilizations. 2. Civilization- ____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________. 3. Civilizations also have examples of __________________________, ___________________, and _____________________________________. The Bronze Age 1. By 6600 B.C., artisans in Europe and Asia had learned that melting a certain rock at high temperatures would separate metal copper from rock. 2. By 3000 B.C., artisans had learned to mix tin with copper to make bronze, which marked the start of the Bronze Age. 3. Why do you think bronze was valuable? Trade and the Spread of Ideas 1. People began taking goods like _____________________, _______________________, ______________________, _____________________________, ______________________, and _____________________________ to faraway cities to trade. 2. Merchants- ____________________________________________________________________. Social Classes Develop 1. Social classes- __________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________.