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Social Studies Review for Test 1
Go through all of your definitions beginning with prehistory
Review all questions in the book
Artifacts – objects made by humans
Anthropology – study of the origins of human beings and their societies
Prehistory – before written records
Historians - study and write about the past
Culture – way of life in a society
Archaeology – study of people and cultures through their physical remains
Mary Leakey and Louis Leakey – famous anthropologists – found tools and bones of early
hominids in east Africa
Olduvai Gorge – in Tanzania, Africa – gorge (hole in the ground – found parts from early
Technology – skills and tools that make life easier – we create it
Donald Johanson – anthropologist – found Lucy – first whole skeleton (oldest)
Early Hominids
Australopithecines – (Aus – tra – low –pith – a- sees)
7 million years ago – earliest known hominid – Africa – footprints tell that they existed –
Lucy was an example of a Australopithecines
Homo – Habilis – “handyman” – first to use tools – stone tools- existed around 2 million
years ago
Homo –Erectus – “upright man” – first to walk upright – 2 million years ago – smaller
teeth – larger brains – first to use fire – first to use ax
Homo Sapians – modern humans – migrated around the world – 150 -200 thousand years
ago – 2 different types of Homo Sapiens – Neanderthals – they disappear at some point –
Modern Man (second type)
Old Stone Age – time 2 billion BC to 10,000 BC – time period before farming – follow the
herd -animism linked with Old Stone Age
Paleolithic Period – “Old Stone Age”
Animism – the belief in a spiritual world that there is a god out there in the trees and
Neolithic Revolution – important in the chapter – once people started to farm they settled
down to live in one place – they no longer had to follow the herd – they could farm their
food – very important change – leads to civilizations
New Stone Age – era from 10,000 BC to the end of prehistory (period of time before
written records)
Domesticate – to control, raise plants and animals best for human use
Neolithic Period – “New Stone Age” neo – means new
Catalhuyuk – (cat – tal – hoew – ic) one of the first Neolithic villages – New Stone Age
Nomad – wanderer – a person who roams from place to place in search of food
Jericho – one of the first Neolithic villages also – New Stone Age
Surplus – having more than what you need – important because you can store, sell or trade
the extra – can feed a growing population
Tradition economy – relies habits customs or rituals – tends not to change over time
Pictograph – a drawing that is simple and represent words – an early way of writing
Scribe – a person whose job it was to write
Civilization – complex, highly organized, social order
Cultural diffusion – the way ideas have spread out
Steppe – sparse dry grassland
City State – the city and it’s surrounding area
Polytheistic – belief in many gods
Artisans – skilled worker