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Binomial Nomenclature And
The Future of Classification
Know how the Linnaeus system should be used.
Describe how biochemistry can be used in
Compare and Contrast the five kingdom and
three-domain classification systems.
Binomial Nomenclature
• Use the first name from the Genus. This
must have a capital first letter!
• Use the Species name as the second
name. This must have a lower case first
• Both words should be written in italics
Why Change?
• Original classification was based entirely
on physiology that can be observed.
• By the seventeenth century microscopes
had been developed to allow us to look at
differences between single celled
organisms, fungi and plants etc.
• Now electron microscopes help highlight
specific differences that could not be
observed earlier.
Aristotle’s Method
• All living things are either plants or
• Animals can be divided into three groups:
• Live and move in water.
• Live and move on land.
• Move through the air.
• What problems might this cause?
• Where does man fit into this?
The Five Kingdom classification
• Prokaryotes
No nucleus
Loop of naked DNA
No membrane bound organelles
Smaller ribosomes than other groups.
Respiration occurs in cytoplasm.
Small cells
The Five Kingdom classification
• Protoctists
Mainly single celled (some multicellular)
Large variety of types
Plant or animal like features
Autotrophic or heterotrophic
The Five Kingdom classification
• Fungi
• Eukaryotes
• Chitin based walls surround cytoplasm
• Network of strands form body (mycelium) strands
are called Hyphae.
• Multinucleate cytoplasm
• saprophytic
The Five Kingdom classification
• Plants
Cellulose cell wall surrounds the cell
Produce multicellular embryos from fertilised egg!
The Five Kingdom classification
• Animalia
Fertilised eggs develop into a ball of cells called a
• Often free moving.
• Simple differences in the enzymes and
biomolecules used by different organisms can
show us how species have been related in the
• Cytochrome C is used in the respiration process.
Nearly all organisms must respire, but many
have different forms of Cyt-C.
• By looking at the amino acid structure we can
identify how similar the Cyt-C is in between
species. The more similar the Cyt-C, the more
closely they are related!
Three Domain System
• Carl Woese based ideas on RNA studies
in 1990 to develop a biochemical method
of classification.
• He divided the prokaryote kingdom in two
(Eubacteria and Archaebacteria).
• He had another domain called Eukaryote.
• This system also made use of structural
differences, but relied on bichemistry as
What do Eubacteria have that
Archaebacteria Do Not?
• Different cell membrane structure.
• Flagella with different internal structures.
• Different enzymes (RNA polymerase) for
building RNA
• No protein bound to their genetic material.
• Different mechanism for DNA replication
and building RNA.
Archaebacteria Have Similarities
With Eukaryotae!
• Similar enzymes (RNA polymerase) for
building RNA.
• Similar mechanisms for DNA replication
and building RNA.
• Productions of some proteins that bind to
their DNA.
• What is the main difference between the
two classification systems?
• Will this have an effect on the Linnaeus
method of naming new organisms?
• Which is the most specific way to group
and classify species?
• Which do you think should be used and