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How do you think the president
should be chosen?
A. By the current system
with an electoral college
A
0%
0%
C
C. By the Congress
A. A
B. B
C.0%C
B
B. By the popular vote
of the people
Chapter 11 The Jackson Era
(1824-1845)
Section 1 Jacksonian Democracy
Chapter Time Line
Chapter Time Line
How did political beliefs and events
shape Andrew Jackson’s presidency?
James Monroe Leaves Office
• From 1816 and 1824,
the US had only one
political party
• The Republicans
• James Monroe refused
to run for a third term
• Four candidates from
the party ran for
president
• The candidates views
different and they
represented different
regions
Candidates of 1824
• The Party nominated William
H. Crawford, a former
congressmen from Georgia
• The other three were favorite
sons (Backed by their home
states instead of a party)
• Andrew Jackson came from
Tennessee (West) and war
hero
• Henry Clay from Kentucky
(West) and Speaker of the
House of Representatives
• John Quincy Adams from
Massachusetts (Northeast)
and son of former son John
Adams
Who won the Republican Party nomination
in the presidential election of 1824?
A. William Crawford
B. Andrew Jackson
0%
D
A
0%
A
B
C
0%
D
C
D. John Quincy Adams
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
C. Henry Clay
The Election of 1824
• Jackson received the
largest number of
popular votes
• But, no one received a
majority of the electoral
vote
• Jackson won a plurality
• According to the 12th
Amendment, when no
candidate receives a
majority of electoral
voted, the House of
Reps selects the
president
The House Decides
• Henry Clay met with John
Quincy Adams
• Clay agreed to use his
influence as Speaker of
the House to defeat
Jackson
• In return, Clay hoped to
gain popularity as
secretary of state
• With Clay’s help, Adams
was elected president
• Adams quickly named
Clay secretary of state
(traditionally a stepping
stone to the presidency)
• Jackson’s followers
accused the two men of
making a “corrupt bargain”
and stealing the election
The Adams Presidency
• Adams and Clay denied any
wrongdoings
• The charge of “corrupt
wrongdoing” cast a shadow
over Adams presidency
• Adams had an ambitious
program of legislation
• Also improving roads and
waterways
• Adams wanted to have a
national university
• Adams proposals horrified
his opponents who wanted a
more limited role for the
federal government
• In the end, Congress granted
money for improving rivers,
harbors, and roads
The Republican Party
• By 1824, the Republican
Party split
• Democratic-Republicans
supported Jackson
• National Republicans
supported Adams
• Jackson’s “Democrats”
favored states’ rights and
mistrusted strong central
government
• Many Democrats were
people from the frontier,
immigrants, or workers in
the big cities
The National Republicans
• Wanted a strong central
government
• Supported federal
measures like road
building and the Bank
of the United States
• They believed this
would help the
economy
• Many were merchants
or farmers
Campaign of 1828
• Both partied resorted to
mudslinging (insults)
• Adams was accused of
betraying the people
• The Democrats said the
election was a contest
“between an honest
patriotism, and an unholy,
selfish ambition, on the
other.”
• The National Republicans
fought back with a song
embarrassing incidents of
Jackson’s life
• John C. Calhoun, Adams’
Vice President, switched
parties to run with Jackson
• Jackson won an
overwhelming victory
“Old Hickory”
• Like many of his
supporters, Jackson
was born in a log
cabin
• He was a war hero
• His troops called him
“Old Hickory”
because he was as
tough as a hickory
stick
• Many felt that
Jackson’s rise from a
log cabin to the White
House demonstrated
the American
success story
Who could vote in the presidential
elections of the 1820s?
A. Females
B. African Americans
0%
D
A
0%
A
B
C
0%
D
C
D. Native Americans
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
C. White males
New Voters
• President Jackson promised “equal
protection and equal benefits” for all
Americans
• At least for all white American men
• During his first term, a spirit of
equality spread throughout American
politics
• Many states loosened the restrictions
for voting (Owning property)
• Democracy expanded as people who
had not been allowed to vote
became new voters
• More men participated in the
political process
• Women could not vote. African
Americans and Native Americans
had few rights of any kind
• 22 of the 24 states changed their
constitutions to allow the people to
choose presidential electors
The Spoils System
• Democrats wanted more
ordinary people in government
jobs
• They felt that the federal
government had become a
bureaucracy (a system in which
nonelected officials carry out
laws)
• Jackson replaced workers with
his supporters
• The fired employees protesting,
saying Jackson was acting like
a tyrant
• One Jackson supporter said:
“To the victors belong the
spoils”
• The practice of replacing
government employees with the
winner’s supporters is called the
spoils system
Electoral Changes
• Jackson’s supporters
abandoned the
unpopular caucus
(Candidates chosen by
Congress)
• Nominating conventions
replaced them
• Delegates from the
states chose the party’s
presidential candidate
• This allowed many
people to participate in
selecting candidates
The Tariff Debate
• A high tariff on European
manufactured goods pleased
Northeastern factory owners
• By making European goods
more expensive, more
American made goods would
be sold
• Southerners hated it because
tariffs meant higher prices
• John C. Calhoun argued that
a state had the right to nullify
(cancel) a federal law if it was
considered to be against state
interests
• Daniel Webster (North)
disagreed, claiming that
nullification would destroy the
Union
How would Northeastern factory owners react
to a high tariff?
A. They would be upset and
oppose high tariffs.
0%
D
C
D. They would consume more
European products.
B
C. They would be very pleased.
A. A
B. B
0% C 0%
0% C.
D. D
A
B. They would decrease
production of goods.
Nullification
• Jackson spoke to
Calhoun- “Our federal
Union… must be
preserved”
• Calhoun responded“The Union- next to our
liberty, most dear”
• Calhoun meant that the
Union must take second
place to a state’s liberty
to overrule the
Constitution if its
interests were
threatened
• 1832- Congress lowered
the tariff, but the
protests from the South
continued
South Carolina’s Response
• South Carolina passed the
Nullification Act, declaring it
would not pay the “illegal”
tariffs of 1828 and 1832
• South Carolina threatened
to secede if the government
interfered
• To ease the crisis, Jackson
backed a bill that would
gradually lower the tariff
• Jackson also had Congress
pass the Force Bill, allowing
him to use the military to
enforce acts of Congress
• South Carolina accepted the
new tariff, but nullified the
Force Bill
How did political beliefs and events
shape Andrew Jackson’s presidency?
-Limiting the strength of the federal
government
-States’ rights
-Broadening democracy
-Spoils system
-Nullification challenged his ideas
Chapter 11 Section 1 Quiz
John C. Calhoun believed that states had a
right to nullify acts of the federal
government.
A. True
B. False
ls
e
0%
Fa
Tr
ue
0%
Presidential candidates who receive the
backing of their home states rather than that
of the national party are called
A. home state
candidates.
B. national party
candidates.
C. favorite son
candidates.
D. state party
candidates.
.
te
s
te
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st
at
e
pa
rty
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.
.
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Andrew Jackson's supporters
replaced caucuses with
A. selection
meetings.
B. state conventions.
C. delegate
conventions.
D. nominating
conventions.
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i..
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.
0% 0% 0% 0%
The only Americans allowed to
vote in 1824 and 1828 were
A. African
Americans.
B. white men.
C. white women.
D. all of the above.
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ft
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A
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A
0%
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What law allowed the president to use the
United States military to enforce acts of
Congress?
A. Military Act
B. Presidential Act
C. Congressional Bill
D. Force Bill
rc
e
B
ill
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Fo
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Do you agree with the policy that the
government can take control of private land
if it believes it is in the best interest of the
country?
A. Strongly agree
B. Somewhat agree
C. Somewhat disagree
D. Strongly disagree
S
e
c
t
i
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n
2
P
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l
l
i
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g
Q
u
e
s
t
i
o
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
Chapter 11 The Jackson Era
(1824-1845)
Section 2 Conflicts Over Land
How did Andrew Jackson’s
presidency affect Native Americans?
The Expanding Nation
• The American nation had
expanded westward
• The “Five Civilized Tribes” still
lived in the eastern part of the
country
• Cherokee, Creek, Seminole,
Chickasaw, and Choctaw
• These tribes had farming
societies with successful
economies
• Few Americans settled west of
the Mississippi River because it
was dry and seemed
unsuitable for farming
• Many wanted the federal
government to relocate Native
Americans from the Southeast
to this area
President Andrew Jackson
• Jackson supported the settlers
demand for Native American land
• Jackson had fought against
Native Americans
• In Jackson’s Inaugural address,
Jackson stated that he intended
to move all Native Americans to
the Great Plains
• Many believed the Great Plains
was a wasteland
• People thought if the Native
Americans moved to that region,
the nation’s conflict with them
would be over
Indian Removal Act
• 1830- Jackson pushed the
Indian Removal Act through
Congress
• This allowed the federal
government to pay Native
Americans to move west
• Jackson then sent officials to
make treaties with the Native
Americans of the Southeast
• Most Native American leaders
felt forced to accept payment
for their lands
• 1834- Congress created the
Indian Territory
• In present day Oklahoma this
area was set aside for the
relocation of Native
Americans from the Southeast
The Cherokee Nation
• The Cherokee refused to give up
their land
• “We wish to remain on the land of
our fathers”
• The government’s position did not
change and the Cherokee sued
the state of Georgia
• Eventually the Cherokee took their
case to the Supreme Court
• Worcester v. Georgia (1832)Chief Justice John Marshall ruled
that Georgia had no right to
interfere with the Cherokee
• Only the federal government had
power in Cherokee matters
• President Jackson supported
Georgia’s efforts to remove the
Cherokee
• Jackson ignored the Supreme
Court saying “John Marshall made
his decision, now let him enforce
it”
In Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John
Marshall ruled that
A. Georgia had no right to
interfere with the Cherokee.
B. the “spoils system”
was unconstitutional.
C.
D.
A.
the federal government
B.
had no authority over
Native Americans.
C.
states had to support a national bank.
D.
A
B
C
D
Section 2
Cherokee Land
• 1835- The federal
government persuaded
about 500 Cherokee to
sign the Treaty of New
Echota
• Gave up their land
• This gave Jackson the
legal document needed to
remove the Native
Americans
• Very few Americans
spoke against it
• Daniel Webster and Henry
Clay did speak against it
The Cherokee’s Response
• Most of the 17,000 Cherokee
refused to honor the treaty
• The Cherokee wrote the
government and said the
people that signed the treaty
did not represent the Cherokee
people
• Jackson’s stance did not
change
• The Cherokee resisted until
1838 when Jackson’s
successor (Van Buren) started
their removal
• General John Wool resigned in
protest
• The new general, Winfield
Scott, arrived at New Echoa
(Cherokee capital) in May 1738
• Along with 7,000 troops- began
the invasion of the Cherokee
Nation
General Winfield Scott
• Scott threatened to use
force if the Cherokee did
not leave
• The Cherokee knew that
fighting would lead to their
destruction
• With sadness and anger,
the Cherokee leaders gave
in
• The long march to the west
began
• Around 2,000 Cherokee
died in camps waiting for
the move to begin
• About 2,000 more died on
the trip of starvation,
disease, and exposure to
brutal weather
• Called the Trail of Tears
Native American Resistance- Black Hawk
• 1832- Black Hawk led
a group of Sauk and
Fox people back to
Illinois
• The Illinois state militia
along with federal
troops responded with
4,500 soldiers
• The Native Americans
fled and the soldiers
caught up to them in
present day Iowa
• Most of the Native
Americans were
slaughtered
Native American Resistance- Seminoles
• The Seminole people
successfully resisted
their removal
• Seminole chief,
Osceola, and some of
his friends refused to
leave Florida
• The Seminoles joined
with a group of escaped
enslaved African
Americans
• They attacked white
settlements using
guerrilla tactics
Native American Resistance- Seminoles Continued
• December 1835Ambushed American
soldiers under Major
Francis Dade
• Only a few of the 110
soldiers survived
• More troops were sent
down to Florida after the
Dade Massacre
• By 1842- more than
1,500 Americans died in
the Seminole wars
• The government gave
up and allowed the
Seminole to stay in
Florida
After 1842
• There were only a few Native
American groups east of the
Mississippi River
• Native Americans had given up
100 million acres of Eastern land
• In return they received $68
million and 32 million acres of
land west of the Mississippi
• Eventually white settlers would
extend into these areas as (Big
surprise!)
• The Five Civilized Tribes were
relocated to present day
Oklahoma
• There they developed
governments and built farms and
schools
• Also created a police force
Section 2
Which tribe successfully resisted
forced relocation?
A. The Cherokee
B. The Sauk
C. The Osceola
D. The Seminole
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
How did Andrew Jackson’s presidency
affect Native Americans?
-1. The federal government should deal
with Native American matters
-2. Intentions to move Native Americans to
the Great Plains
-3. Indian Removal Act
-4. His support for Georgia’s effort to
remove the Cherokee
-5. Treaty of Echota
Chapter 11 Section 2 Quiz
Which act allowed the federal
government to pay Native
Americans to move west?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Native American Act
Federal Act
Indian Removal Act
Settlers Act
Who were the only Native
Americans who successfully
resisted their removal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Seminole
Cherokee
Sauk
Fox
Making surprise attacks and then
retreating back into the forests and
swamps is using
A.
B.
C.
D.
tactical warfare.
guerrilla tactics.
swamp tactics.
surprise warfare.
The Cherokee Trail of Tears
began in
A.
B.
C.
D.
Georgia.
Florida.
Alabama.
Kentucky.
Who, along with federal troops, led
the Cherokee west on the Trail of
Tears?
A. Andrew Jackson
B. Winfield Scott
C. William Henry
Harrison
D. Oliver Hazard Perry
Which presidential campaign slogan
do you feel is most effective?
A. A Chicken in Every Pot
B. Tippecanoe and Tyler Too
C. Are You Better Off Than
You Were Four Years Ago?
D. Ross for Boss
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
Chapter 11 The Jackson Era
(1824-1845)
Section 3 Jackson and the Bank
How do economic issues affect the
president and presidential elections?
The National Bank
• Andrew Jackson hated
the Bank of the United
States
• Jackson felt it helped the
wealthy Easterners
• The bank was a powerful
institution that held the
federal governments
money
• The Bank’s president,
Nicholas Biddle,
represented everything
Jackson disliked
• Jackson was a self made
man while Biddle was
born into a wealthy family
Jackson attacked the Bank of the United States
because
A. it was being run by
corrupt elected officials.
B. it provided loans to
all citizens.
C.
D.
A. A
it financed foreign
B.
B
business deals that
put Americans out of work.
C. C
it was controlled by wealthy Easterners.
D. D
Campaign of 1832
• Jackson’s opponents,
Henry Clay and Daniel
Webster, were friends of
Biddle
• Clay and Webster planned
to use the Bank to defeat
Jackson
• They persuaded Biddle to
apply for an early charter
(The old one did not expire
until 1836)
• Clay and Webster felt that if
Jackson vetoed the charter
it would lead to his defeat
• Clay could then be elected
president
The Bank’s Charter
• When the bill to renew the
Bank’s charter came to
Jackson to sign, he was
sick in bed
• Jackson told his friend
Martin Van Buren- “The
bank…is trying to kill me.
But I will kill it!”
• Jackson vetoed the bill
• Jackson felt the Bank was
unconstitutional (Contrary
to McCulloch v. Maryland)
• “The laws… make the rich
richer”
The Election of 1832
• The plan for gaining
support for Clay
backfired
• Most people supported
Jackson’s veto
• Jackson was reelected
• Jackson chose to “kill”
the Bank ahead of the
1836 schedule
• All money was withdrawn
and put into smaller state
banks
• In 1836 he refused to
sign a new charter for the
Bank, and it closed
Election of 1836
• Jackson decided not to
run for a third term and
the Democrats chose
Martin Van Buren
• A new party, the Whigs,
nominated three
candidates (Each had a
following in different
parts of the country)
• Jackson’s popularity
helped Van Buren win
easily
• Shortly after Van Buren
became president, the
country entered a severe
economic depression
The Panic of 1837
• The depression began
with the Panic of 1837
• Land values dropped,
investments declined,
and banks failed
• 1000s of businesses
closed and people lost
jobs
• In the South, cotton
prices dropped to
record lows
• Farmers went into debt
and lost their land
• In the cities, many
could not afford food or
rent
President Van Buren
• Believed in laissez-faire (Like
Jefferson)
• Van Buren persuaded
Congress to establish an
independent federal treasury in
1840
• The government will not
deposit money in private banks
(Like they did under Jackson)
• The private banks had used
government funds to back their
banknotes
• The new treasury system
would keep this from
happening and avoid crises
• Van Buren’s own party along
with the Whigs criticized the
act
The Whigs
• The Whigs nominated
William Henry Harrison, a
hero of the War of 1812
• John Tyler, a planter from
Virginia, was Harrison’s
running mate
• Harrison won national fame
for defeating Tecumseh’s
followers at the Battle of
Tippecanoe
• The Whig’s used the slogan
“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too”
• To win the election Harrison
had to gain support from the
laborers and farmers who
supported Jackson
What was the reason the Whigs won the 1840
election?
A. They made a “corrupt bargain”
with Henry Clay to steal the
presidency.
B. The Democrats split over
Van Buren.
C.
D.
A. A
B.
B
They ended the Panic of 1837.
They gained support from farmers C. C
and laborers rather than the wealthyD.
elite.
D
The Log Cabin Campaign
• Harrison and the Whigs
chose a log cabin as their
symbol
• Harrison was rich, but
wanted to look like a “man
of the people”
• The Whigs criticized Van
Buren as “King Martin” that
spent the peoples money on
fancy furniture for the White
House
• The Log Cabin Campaign
worked- Harrison won by a
wide margin
• Harrison became the first
Whig president
Harrison’s Inauguration
• Inauguration day
1841- bitter cold
• Harrison insisted
on giving his
speech without a
hat or coat
• He died 32 days
later
• Served the
shortest term of
any American
President
• VP John Tyler
became president
Tyler’s Presidency
• John Tyler had once been a
Democrat
• The Whigs added him to the ticket
with Harrison to attract Southern
voters
• Tyler vetoed many Whig sponsored
bills (Including a recharter of the
Bank)
• His lack of party loyalty outraged
many Whigs
• Whig leaders in Congress expelled
Tyler from the party
• The Whigs could not agree on their
party’s goals
• They voted according to sectional ties
• Henry Clay (Now a Whig) lost the
election of 1844 to Democratic
candidate James Polk
How do economic issues affect the
president and presidential elections?
- Closing of the Bank
- The Panic of 1837
- Economic depression
Chapter 11 Section 3 Quiz
What did Henry Clay and Daniel Webster
use to try to defeat Andrew Jackson in the
1832 presidential election?
A. a new law
B. veto power
C. Bank of the United
States
D. Congress
President Jackson believed that
the Bank of the United States
A. favored the poor.
B. favored the rich.
C. should be
supported.
D. was corrupt.
Two months after President Martin Van
Buren took office, the country went into
A. a severe
depression.
B. economic
prosperity.
C. a recession.
D. a period of inflation.
As their symbol in the election
of 1840, the Whigs adopted the
A.
B.
C.
D.
donkey.
elephant.
log cabin.
bank.
Who was the first vice president to
become president because the elected
president died in office?
A. Andrew Jackson
B. Martin Van Buren
C. William Henry
Harrison
D. John Tyler