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Your Name _______________________________Period_____ Date___________________
Ch. 11 Title Record Here _____________________________________________________________________
Central Case: Saving the Siberian Tiger- pp. 294-295
*Also named Amur tigers for the watershed they occupied along the Amur River, which divides
_____________________________ from __________________________________________, these cats now
find their last refuge in the forests of the remote ______________________________ Mountains of the Russian
Far East.
*The region’s native people referred to the tiger as “________________________” or “__________________”
and viewed it as a guardian of the mountain and forests.
*Tigers have been hunted for sport starting in the early 20th century, later poachers began killing tigers to sell
their body parts to China and other Asian countries, where they are used in traditional medicine and as
*Meanwhile, _______________________, _________________, and agriculture began to fragment tiger
habitat and provide easy access for poachers.
*Tigers dropped to as low as __________ but thanks to the efforts by groups such as WCS (aka
__________________________, their wild number is roughly ________.
Our Planet of Life- pp. 295-301
*Biodiversity is the
Biodiversity encompasses several levels
Give a definition and a specific example for each of the levels discussed in this section.
*Species diversity
*Specific Example:
*Genetic diversity
*Specific Example:
*Ecosystem diversity
*Specific Example:
Find or create a Mneumonic that will help you remember the levels of classification in Figure 11.2Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species- record your mneumonic below
Some groups hold more species than others
*In terms of number of species, _______________________ show a staggering predominance over all other
forms of life, 40% of which are ________________________. _______________________ radiation and
__________________________ speciation are two processes that have a tendency to promote diversification.
Measuring biodiversity is not easy
Why is our knowledge of species numbers incomplete? Explain the 3 reasons given in text.
Biodiversity is unevenly distributed
*Species richness generally increases as one approaches the ____________________________. This pattern of
variation with latitude, called the ______________________ __________________________, is one of the
most obvious patterns in ecology, and one of the most difficult for scientists to explain.
*It seems likely that what 2 factors play key roles in this pattern of species distribution? (list & explain
*Generally, habitats that are _____________________diverse allow for more ecological ______________ and
support greater species richness and evenness.
Biodiversity Loss and Species Extinction- pp. 301-310
*The disappearance of a particular population from a given area, but not the entire species ____________, is
referred to as __________________________
Extinction is a natural process
*Paleontologists estimate that roughly ______% of all species that ever lived are now extinct
*An annual rate of one extinction per 1 to 10 million species is known as the _________________ rate of
Earth has experienced five mass extinction episodes
*Practice recreating the major features of the Table 11.1- create a chart with the names of each extinction event,
the date mya, and the likely causes
Humans are setting the sixth mass extinction in motion
*What does Figure 11.9 illustrate?
*How do scientist know about these events that preceded written history?
Current extinction rates are much higher than normal
*World Conservation Union maintains the _____________________, an updated list of species facing high
risks of extinction. Using this website- record 2 species that show up on the rotating images that are threatened.
Record their entire Genus and species name, their 2justification for being on the list, 3major threats,
conservation efforts and their 5location on the globe (you will have to click on the photo to get this
Species Name:
Species Name:
Biodiversity loss involves more than extinction
*To measure and quantify the declines in genetic, ecosystem and species diversity, scientists at the World
Wildlife Fund and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) developed a metric called the
_______________________ _______________________ Index
Several major causes of biodiversity loss stand out
HIPCO or HIPPO are mneumonics used to remember this major causes- explain below what each of the letters
represent and WHY each of these has resulted in the loss of biodiversity.
The Science Behind the Story: Amphibian Diversity and Amphibian Declines
Read the story and then answer these questions.
pp. 308-309
Why are amphibians widely regarded as “biological indicators”?
What are some ways that scientists determine if they have discovered a new species unknown to science?
In the study by researchers Rick Relyea and Nathan Mills, what was their investigative question?
Based on their experimental design- what do you think was their hypothesis?
What some of the factors that scientists are finding- that when combined- may be threatening amphibians
Benefits of Biodiversity- pp. 310-314
Biodiversity provides _________________ _________________ free of charge
Read through the list of ecosystem services with the orange arrow bullets- then record in your own words- 3
that you know you will remember
Biodiversity helps maintain ecosystem function
*________________________ is the ability to weather disturbance, bounce back from stresses, or adapt to
What is an “ecosystem engineer”?
Why are they as important as our keystone species, such as the tigers, wolves and pandas of the world?
Biodiversity enhances __________________ security
Give at least 3 examples of what is discussed in this section of the text and listed in Figure 11.17.
Organisms provide ________________ and ____________________
Give at least 3 examples of what is discussed in this section of the text and listed in Figure 11.18.
Biodiversity generates economic benefits through ______________________ and ______________________
People value and seek out connections with nature
*_____________________________ has described a phenomenon he calls _____________________, “the
connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life”
Do we have ethical obligations toward other species- read this section- then answer the question yourself- yes
or no- and explain your answer. You do not have to agree with the textbook’s authors or E.O. Wilson.
Conservation Biology: The Search for Solutions- pp. 315-323
Conservation biology arose in response to biodiversity loss
What is conservation biology?
Conservation biologists work at multiple levels
List the examples of the “levels” discussed in this section.
________________ __________________________ theory is a key component of conservation biology
Using google images- find another representation of Figure 11.21- redraw it or paste it below- then add a
caption to explain this concept.
Should endangered species be the focus of conservation efforts?
*_________________________________, passed in _______________, forbids the government and private
citizens from taking actions (such as developing land) that destroy endangered species or their habitats.
The Science Behind The Story: Testing and Applying Island Biogeography Theory- pp. 318-319
Summarize the main points of this story- what was the scientists main contribution to our knowledge of
conservation biology and biodiversity?
________________________________, reintroduction, and _________________________ are singlespecies approaches
*What examples are given for each of these methods in the body of the text- which species benefitted?
Some species act as “umbrellas” for protecting habitat and communities
*What does this heading mean by “umbrella”? Explain- and use an example of a species- different from the
one given in the text in your explanation.
International conservation efforts include widely signed treaties
*__________________________________________(CITES) protects endangered species by
*The Convention on Biological Diversity has what 3 main goals?
Biodiversity ________________________ pinpoint areas of high diversity
*_______________________ is a term that describe that a species is found nowhere else in the world
Using Figure 11.26- list 3 regions with exceptionally high numbers of species found nowhere else
Community-based conservation is increasingly popular
Explain why this approach is increasing in its popularity.
Innovative economic strategies are being employed
*________________________is when a conservation organization raises money and offers to pay off a portion
of a developing country’s international debt in exchange for a promise by the country to set aside reserves, fund
environmental education, and better manage protected areas
*________________________is when nations sell concessions to foreign multinational corporations, allowing
them to extract resources from the nation’s land