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Unit VI: Classical Rome and the Byzantine Empire
Rome began as a group of settlements around 753 B.C.E. The city of Rome, with government
known as a republic, where elected officials represent the people, was established around 500 B.C.E.
Eventually, Rome became the Roman Empire, controlled by an emperor and controlling vast amounts
of land. At its peak, it included most of Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East. During the height
of the empire around 200 A.D., the empire covered 2.5 million square miles. The Romans were known
for their army, architecture, and government.
Based on strict organization and centralized control, the empire was connected by a huge
network of roads with the city of Rome in the center. Each town was planned in exactly the same way
including a system of streets, running water from aqueducts, and sewers. The forum at the center of
town was surrounded by shops, temples, and government buildings. A strong army defended and
expanded the empire. The soldiers belonged to legions of about 5,000 people. They were highly
trained and well-equipped with armor, shields, spears, and swords. Roman history contains many
famous figures including Augustus, the first emperor, Julius Caesar, Caligula, and Nero.
The Romans had many festivals and rituals for events such a childbirth, marriage, and funerals.
Like Greek culture, Roman culture was known for its mythology. The Romans enjoyed food, baths, and
all kinds of entertainment. Public games such as gladiator games were held in amphitheaters, the
Colosseum, being the largest amphitheatre, while chariot races were held in the circuses, a Latin
name for a racetrack or speedway, the Circus Maximus being the largest.
The Empire was eventually split into two parts. The Western Empire fell in 476 A.D. but the
Eastern Empire became the Byzantine Empire. The capital of Constantinople was located right
between the Black Sea and the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. As a result most trade between
Asia, Europe and North Africa had to pass through the Byzantine Empire and it became very wealthy.
Byzantines practiced Eastern Orthodox Christianity after a dispute over the worship of icons in
1054. The Byzantine Empire was significant because it helped preserve Greco-Roman culture,
preserved and expanded upon Greco-Roman laws in the Justinian Code and shaped the developing
cultures of Russia and Eastern Europe. The Byzantine Empire finally collapsed in 1453 due to
invasions by the Ottoman Turks.
HW1- Due _________________: Chapter 6 Questions Section 1-3 and Rome Vocab 1
HW2- Due _________________: Chapter 6 Questions Section 4-5 and Rome Vocab 2
HW3- Due _________________: Byzantine Questions (from textbook) and Byz Vocab
Name: ___________________________
Homework 1: Chapter 6 questions
Ancient Rome and Early Christianity 500 B.C. – 500 A.D.
Directions: Answer the questions based on the information in the Chapter 6 Summary
Reading (Telescoping the Times) in this packet. USE COMPLETE SENTENCES!
Section 1- The Roman Create a Republic
1. What group of people founded the city of Rome?
2. Why was it a good location? Describe two reasons.
3. In 600 BC, who ruled over Rome?
4. When the Romans overthrew the Etruscan king, what kind of government did they
create? Describe it.
5. List two reasons the Twelve Tables were important. (What did it provide for the
6. How did the Romans try to prevent one person from having too much power?
7. Describe the Roman senate. (Who was in it? What did it do?)
8. How did Romans treat the people they conquered?
9. Rome fought three wars (called the Punic Wars) with Carthage over trade. Describe
what happened in each one.
a. First Punic Warb. Second Punic Warc. Third Punic War-
10. What sea did Rome control?
Section 2- The Roman Empire Brings Change
11. Why did a civil war erupt in Rome?
12. What three men controlled Rome after the civil war?
13. Why was Julius Caesar killed?
14.What title did Caesar’s nephew take after the civil war following Caesar’s death? What
does it mean?
15.Describe the 200 year period when Rome had great power.
16.How could conquered people become citizens of the Roman Empire?
17.List and describe the three kinds of people in ancient Rome.
Section 3- The Rise of Christianity
18. What group of people does this section mention was conquered by the Romans?
19. What is the Messiah and what was the Messiah supposed to be able to do?
20.Why did many people think Jesus was the Messiah?
21.What did his followers call Jesus after his death and what does it mean?
22. Why were the Romans angry at the Christians and what did they do to punish them?
23. Why did Christianity spread so much? (Why did people like it?)
24.What did the Roman emperor Constantine do in 313 AD that helped Christians? (to be
persecuted means to be mistreated.)
Homework 1: Rome Vocab 1- Use your notes, book and reading from this packet to
define, describe and explain the significance of the terms as they relate to Rome.
Chapter 6, Section 1 (p. 130-134) in your textbook.
1. Republic_____________________________________________________________________
2. Patrician _____________________________________________________________________
3. Consul ______________________________________________________________________
4. Dictator ______________________________________________________________________
5. Plebeian _____________________________________________________________________
6. Tribune ______________________________________________________________________
7. Veto ________________________________________________________________________
8. Legion ______________________________________________________________________
9. Senate ______________________________________________________________________
10. Laws of the Twelve Tables _____________________________________________________
Use Chapter 6, Section 2 (p. 135-140) in your textbook.
11. Pax Romana ________________________________________________________________
12. Circus Maximus ______________________________________________________________
Name: ___________________________ Homework 2: Chapter 6 questions
Answer the following questions in complete sentences based on the information from the reading.
Section 4- The Decline of the Roman Empire
25. Describe three economic problems Rome experiences after 180 A.D.
26. What military problems did Rome face?
27.What emperor split the empire into two halves to make it easier to govern?
28. What did Emperor Constantine do to change the empire?
29.What two groups of people invaded Rome?
30. What happened in 476 AD?
Section 5- Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization
31. How was Roman art different from Greek art?
32. What is a mosaic?
33. What forms of architecture did Romans use to build large buildings?
34.What does an aqueduct do?
35. What was Rome’s most lasting influence?
Homework 2: Rome Vocab 2-Use your notes, book and reading from this packet to
define, describe and explain the significance of the terms as they relate to Rome.
Use Chapter 6, Section 3 (p. 141-143) in your textbook.
13. Aqueduct ___________________________________________________________________
14. Greco-Roman Civilization ______________________________________________________
15. Pantheon ___________________________________________________________________
Use Chapter 6, Section 4 (p. 144-148) in your textbook.
16. New Testament_______________________________________________________________
17. Edict of Milan ________________________________________________________________
18. Messiah ____________________________________________________________________
19. Heresy _____________________________________________________________________
Use Chapter 6, Section 5 (p. 148-151) in your textbook to identify the following people.
20. Mercenary __________________________________________________________________
21. Diocletian ___________________________________________________________________
22. Constantine__________________________________________________________________
Name: ___________________________ Homework 3: Textbook questions
Answer the following questions in complete sentences based on the information from p. 238- 252
(Chapter 10) in the textbook.
1. Describe at least two reasons why Constantinople was in a good location.
2. Who was Justinian?
3. Describe the Hagia Sophia (What is it? Why is it significant?)
4. What was the impact of the Justinian Code?
5. Describe Empress Theodora. Give at least three pieces of information about her.
6. How does Theodora save her husband’s crown from being taken from him during a revolt?
7. What were the Byzantine Empire’s strengths against invaders?
8. What were at least two of the differences between Byzantine Christianity and Roman
Catholicism in the west?
9. Describe how the Byzantine Empire ended in 1453 CE.
10. List at least three achievements in art and learning preserved during the Byzantine Empire.
11. Explain two ways the Byzantines influenced Russia.
Homework 3:Byzantine Vocab- -Use your notes and book to define, describe and
explain the significance of the terms as they relate to Rome.
1. Icon
2. Patriarch
3. Autocrat
4. schism
5. mosaic
6. legacy
7. Theodora
8. Justinian Code
9. Hagia Sophia
10. Constantinople
11. Eastern Orthodox Church
12. Cyrillic alphabet