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• semilunar valve cusps look like half moons
• artery lining is simple squamous endothelial cells
(a kind of epithelium)
• antibiotics can cause a fever
• immunosuppressive drugs (for organ
transplants, skin grafts) often need to be taken
for life
• WBC response time? think of how long it takes
one to be allergic when in presence of allergen
Chapter 13:
The Respiratory System
General Functions
• Provide an area for gas exchange between the
air and blood
• Move air in and out of the exchange surfaces
• Protect the system from infection and
environmental changes
• Produce sound
• Produce olfactory sensations
Respiratory System
Upper Respiratory System
• Note:
– nasal conchae
– sinuses
– pharynx
– larynx
• cilia
• mucus secreting
goblet cells
• what is the function of
• lobed
• 2 pleural serosa or layers
– visceral or pulmonary pleura
– parietal pleura
– pleural membranes produce fluid to lubricate
Thoracic Cavity
Bronchi change as they travel into
• bronchioles are smallest
conducting pathways
Bronchioles lead to alveoli
Alveoli are air sacs
• alveol = small cavity
• only site of gas exchange
• walls are mostly single squamous
• external surface covered with cobweb of
pulmonary capillaries
Respiratory Membrane
• alveolar and capillary walls fuse at the
basement membranes
• gas flowing on one side
• blood flowing on the other
Respiratory Membrane
• simple diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide
• cuboidal cells produce surfactant
• surfactant
– coats gas-exposed alveolar surfaces to
prevent collapse in newborns
• macrophages wander alveoli picking up
bacteria, carbon particles, and debris
Respiratory Physiology
• External respiration: exchange of gases
with body’s interstitial fluids and the
• Internal respiration: the absorption of
gases by cells