Download SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Lean accounting wikipedia, lookup

Microsoft Dynamics GP wikipedia, lookup

History of accounting wikipedia, lookup

James Bray Griffith wikipedia, lookup

Institute of Cost Accountants of India wikipedia, lookup

Time book wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
CHAPTER20
Job Order
Costing
Acct202
20-1
PreviewofCHAPTER20
20-2
Cost Accounting Systems
Cost accounting involves the measuring, recording, and
reporting of product costs.

Important feature is the use of a perpetual inventory
system.

Two basic types of cost accounting systems:
1. a job order cost system and
2. a process cost system.
20-3
SO 1 Explain the characteristics and purposes of cost accounting.
Cost Accounting Systems
Job Order Cost System

Costs are assigned to each job or batch.

Job may be for a specific order or inventory.

Each job or batch has its own distinguishing
characteristics.

Objective is to compute the cost per job.

Measures costs for each job completed – not for set time
periods.
20-4
SO 1 Explain the characteristics and purposes of cost accounting.
Cost Accounting Systems
Job Order Cost System
Illustration 20-1
20-5
SO 1 Explain the characteristics and purposes of cost accounting.
Cost Accounting Systems
Process Cost System

Used when a large volume of similar products are
manufactured - Cereal, Automobiles, Compact Discs,
Paint.

Costs are accumulated for a specific time period.

Costs are assigned to departments or processes for a
set period of time.
20-6
SO 1 Explain the characteristics and purposes of cost accounting.
Cost Accounting Systems
Process Cost System
Illustration 20-2
20-7
SO 1 Explain the characteristics and purposes of cost accounting.
Cost Accounting Systems
Question
Cost accounting involves the measuring, recording, and
reporting of:
a. Product costs.
b. Future costs.
c. Manufacturing processes.
d. Managerial accounting decisions.
20-8
SO 1 Explain the characteristics and purposes of cost accounting.
Job Order Cost Flow
Cost flow parallels the physical flow of the materials as
they are converted into finished goods.

Manufacturing costs are assigned to Work in Process.

Cost of completed jobs is transferred to Finished Goods.

When units are sold, the cost is transferred to Cost of
Goods Sold.
20-9
SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.
Job Order Cost Flow
Illustration 20-3
Flow of costs in job
order costing
20-10
SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.
Job Order Cost Flow
Illustration 20-4
Job order costing system
20-11
SO 2
Job Order Cost Flow
Two Major Steps in Flow of Costs


20-12
Accumulate the manufacturing costs incurred.
►
Raw Materials
►
Factory Labor
►
Manufacturing Overhead
Assign the accumulated costs to the work done.
SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.
Job Order Cost Flow
Accumulating Manufacturing Costs
Raw Materials Costs
20-13

Raw materials purchased are debited to Raw Materials
Inventory.

Debit this account for invoice cost of raw materials and
freight costs chargeable to purchaser.

Credit this account for purchase discounts taken and
purchase returns and allowances.
SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.
Accumulating Manufacturing Costs
Illustration: Wallace Manufacturing purchases 2,000 handles
(Stock No. AA2746) at $5 per unit ($10,000) and 800 modules
(Stock No. AA2850) at $40 per unit ($32,000) for a total cost of
$42,000 ($10,000 + $32,000). The entry to record this purchase
on January 4 is:
Jan. 4
Raw Materials Inventory
Accounts Payable
20-14
42,000
42,000
SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.
Job Order Cost Flow
Factory Labor Costs

Debit labor costs to Factory Labor as costs are incurred.

Consists of:
1) Gross earnings of factory workers,
2) Employer payroll taxes on such earnings, and
3) Fringe benefits incurred by the employer.
20-15
SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.
Job Order Cost Flow
Illustration: Wallace Manufacturing incurs $32,000 of factory
labor costs. Of that amount, $27,000 relates to wages payable
and $5,000 relates to payroll taxes payable in January. The entry
to record factory labor for the month is:
Jan. 31
Factory Labor
32,000
Factory Wages Payable
Employer Payroll Taxes Payable
20-16
27,000
5,000
SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.
Job Order Cost Flow
Manufacturing Overhead Costs


20-17
Company may
►
recognize these costs daily, or,
►
periodically through adjusting entries.
Companies record property taxes, depreciation, and
insurance periodically.
SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.
Job Order Cost Flow
Illustration: Using assumed data, the summary entry for
manufacturing overhead in Wallace Manufacturing Company is:
Jan. 31
20-18
Manufacturing Overhead
13,800
Utilities Payable
4,800
Prepaid Insurance
2,000
Accounts Payable (for repairs)
2,600
Accumulated Depreciation
3,000
Property Taxes Payable
1,400
SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.
Job Order Cost Flow
Question
When incurred, factory labor costs are debited to
a. Work in Process.
b. Factory Wages Expense.
c. Factory Labor.
d. Factory Wages Payable.
20-19
SO 2 Describe the flow of costs in a job order cost accounting system.
Job Order Cost Flow
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to Work in
Process

Manufacturing costs are assigned to Work in Process with
Debits to
Work in Process Inventory
Credits to
Raw Materials Inventory
Factory Labor
Manufacturing Overhead
20-20

Entries are usually made monthly.

Essential accounting record is a job cost sheet.
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Job Cost Sheet
20-21

Used to record costs of a specific job.

Used to determine total and unit costs of a completed job.

Postings are made daily.

Each entry to a Work in Process Inventory must be
accompanied by a corresponding posting to one or more
job cost sheets.
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Illustration 20-5
20-22
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Raw Materials Costs

Companies assign raw materials costs when their
materials storeroom issues the materials.

Materials requisition slip:
►
Should indicate quantity and type of materials
withdrawn and account to be charged.
►
Direct materials are charged to WIP Inventory, and
indirect materials to Manufacturing Overhead.
20-23
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Illustration 20-6
20-24
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Illustration: Wallace Manufacturing uses $24,000 of direct
materials and $6,000 of indirect materials in January, the
entry is:
Jan. 31
Work in Process Inventory
Manufacturing Overhead
Raw Materials Inventory
20-25
24,000
6,000
30,000
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Illustration 20-6
The sum of the
direct materials
columns of the
job cost sheets
should equal the
direct materials
debited to Work
in Process
Inventory.
Illustration 20-7
20-26
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Factory Labor Costs
20-27

Assigned to jobs on the basis of time tickets.

Time tickets are prepared when work is performed.

Time tickets indicate:
►
Employee
►
Account and job charged
►
Hours worked
►
Total labor cost
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Illustration 20-8
20-28
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Factory Labor Costs

Time tickets are sent to payroll to be sorted, totaled, and
journalized.
►
Work in Process is debited for direct labor costs.
►
Manufacturing overhead is debited for indirect labor
costs.
►
20-29
Factory labor is left with a zero balance.
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Illustration: Assume the $32,000 total factory labor cost
consists of $28,000 of direct labor and $4,000 of indirect
labor, the entry is:
Jan. 31
Work in Process Inventory
Manufacturing Overhead
Factory Labor
20-30
28,000
4,000
32,000
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Illustration 20-9
Assume the labor
costs chargeable to
Wallace’s three jobs
are $15,000, $9,000,
and $4,000.
The sum of the direct
labor columns of the
job cost sheets
should equal the
direct labor debited to
Work in Process
Inventory.
20-31
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Question
The source documents for assigning material and
factory labor costs to job cost sheets are:
a. Invoices and time tickets.
b. Invoices and payroll register.
c. Materials requisition slips and payroll register.
d. Materials requisition slips and time tickets.
20-32
SO 3 Explain the nature and importance of a job cost sheet.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Manufacturing Overhead Costs

Relates to production operations as a whole.

Cannot be assigned to specific jobs based on actual costs
incurred.

Must be assigned to work in process and to specific jobs
on an estimated basis through the use of a
predetermined overhead rate.
20-33
SO 4 Indicate how the predetermined overhead rate is determined and used.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Predetermined Overhead Rate

Based on the relationship between estimated annual
overhead costs and expected annual operating activity.

Expressed in terms of an activity base such as
►
Direct labor costs.
►
Direct labor hours.
►
Machine hours.
►
Any other activity that is an equitable base for applying
overhead costs to jobs.
20-34
SO 4 Indicate how the predetermined overhead rate is determined and used.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Predetermined Overhead Rate

Established at the beginning of the year.

May use a single, company-wide predetermined rate.

May use a different rate for each department and each
department may have a different activity base.

Formula:
Illustration 20-10
20-35
SO 4 Indicate how the predetermined overhead rate is determined and used.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Predetermined Overhead Rate
Illustration 20-11
More companies are using machine hours as the activity base
due to increased automation in manufacturing operations.
20-36
SO 4 Indicate how the predetermined overhead rate is determined and used.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Illustration: Wallace Manufacturing uses direct labor cost as
the activity base. Wallace expects annual overhead costs to
be $280,000 and direct labor costs for the year to be
$350,000, the overhead rate is 80%, computed as follows:
$280,000
$350,000 = 80%
For every dollar of direct labor, Wallace will assign 80 cents of
manufacturing overhead to a job.
20-37
SO 4 Indicate how the predetermined overhead rate is determined and used.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Illustration: Wallace Manufacturing applies manufacturing
overhead to work in process when it assigns direct labor
costs. It also applies manufacturing overhead to specific jobs
at the same time. For Wallace Manufacturing, overhead
applied for January is $22,400 (direct labor cost of $28,000 x
80%). The following entry records this application.
Jan. 31
Work in Process Inventory
Manufacturing Overhead
20-38
22,400
22,400
SO 4 Indicate how the predetermined overhead rate is determined and used.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
The sum of the
manufacturing
overhead columns of
the job cost sheets
should equal the
manufacturing
overhead debited
(i.e., applied) to Work
in Process Inventory.
Illustration 20-12
Job cost sheets—
manufacturing
overhead applied
20-39
SO 4 Indicate how the predetermined overhead rate is determined and used.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
At the end of each month, the balance in the Work in
Process Inventory should equal the sum of the costs shown
on the job cost sheets of unfinished jobs.
Illustration 20-13
20-40
SO 4 Indicate how the predetermined overhead rate is determined and used.
Assigning Manufacturing Costs to WIP
Question
The formula for computing the predetermined manufacturing
overhead rate is estimated annual overhead costs divided
by an expected annual operating activity, expressed as:
a. Direct labor cost.
b. Direct labor hours.
c. Machine hours.
d. Any of the above.
20-41
SO 4 Indicate how the predetermined overhead rate is determined and used.
Job Order Cost Flow
Assigning
Costs to
Finished
Goods
Illustration 20-14
Completed job cost
sheet
20-42
SO 5 Prepare entries for jobs completed and sold.
Assigning Costs to Finished Goods
Illustration: When a job
is finished, Wallace
makes an entry to
transfer its total cost to
finished goods inventory.
The entry is as follows:
Illustration 20-14
Jan. 31
Finished Goods Inventory
Work in Process Inventory
20-43
39,000
39,000
SO 5 Prepare entries for jobs completed and sold.
Job Order Cost Flow
Assigning Costs to Cost of Goods Sold
Illustration: On January 31, Wallace Manufacturing sells on
account Job 101. The job cost $39,000, and it sold for
$50,000. The entries to record the sale and recognize cost of
goods sold are:
Jan. 31
Accounts Receivable
50,000
Sales
50,000
Cost of Goods Sold
Finished Goods Inventory
20-44
39,000
39,000
SO 5 Prepare entries for jobs completed and sold.
Assigning Costs to Cost of Goods Sold
Question
In M Company, Job No. 26 is completed at a cost of $4,500 and
later sold for $7,000 on account. A correct entry is:
a. Debit Finished Goods Inventory $4,500 and credit Work in
Process Inventory $4,500.
b. Debit Accounts Receivable $7,000 and credit Sales $7,000.
c. Debit Cost of Goods Sold $ 4,500 and credit Finished
Goods Inventory $ 4,500.
d. All of the above.
20-45
SO 5 Prepare entries for jobs completed and sold.
Job Order Cost Flow
Job Order Costing for Service Companies
Service companies do not have inventory.
For example:

Mayo Clinic (health care),

PricewaterhouseCoopers (accounting firm), and

Goldman Sachs (financial services firm).
These firms need to keep track of the cost of jobs performed for specific
customers to evaluate the profitability of medical treatments, audits, or
consulting engagements.
20-46
SO 5 Prepare entries for jobs completed and sold.
20-47
Summary of Job Order Cost Flows
Illustration 20-16
20-48
SO 5 Prepare entries for jobs completed and sold.
Summary of Job Order Cost Flows
Illustration 20-17
20-49
SO 5 Prepare entries for jobs completed and sold.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages of Job Order Costing

It is more precise in assignment of costs to projects than
process costing.

Provides useful information for determining the profitability and
for estimating costs when preparing bids on future jobs.
Disadvantages of Job Order Costing
20-50

Requires a significant amount of data entry.

How to allocate overhead to the finished product (common to
all costing systems).
SO 5 Prepare entries for jobs completed and sold.
Reporting Job Cost Data
Companies prepare the cost of goods manufactured schedule
directly from the Work in Process Inventory account.
Illustration 20-18
20-51
SO 5 Prepare entries for jobs completed and sold.
Under- or Overapplied Overhead
Debit balance in manufacturing overhead means overhead is
underapplied. Overhead assigned to work in process is less
than overhead incurred.
Illustration 20-20
Credit balance in manufacturing overhead means overhead
is overapplied. Overhead assigned to work in process is
greater than overhead incurred.
20-52
SO 6 Distinguish between under- and overapplied manufacturing overhead.
Under- or Overapplied Overhead
Illustration: Wallace Manufacturing has a $2,500 credit
balance in Manufacturing Overhead at December 31. Wallace
considers under- or overapplied overhead to be an adjustment
to cost of goods sold. The adjusting entry for the overapplied
overhead is:
Dec. 31
Manufacturing Overhead
Cost of Goods Sold
20-53
2,500
2,500
SO 6 Distinguish between under- and overapplied manufacturing overhead.
Under- or Overapplied Overhead
Question
Manufacturing overhead is underapplied if:
a. Actual overhead is less than applied.
b. Actual overhead is greater than applied.
c. The predetermined rate equals the actual rate.
d. Actual overhead equals applied overhead.
20-54
SO 6 Distinguish between under- and overapplied manufacturing overhead.
Under- or Overapplied Overhead
Question
Manufacturing overhead is underapplied if:
a. Actual overhead is less than applied.
b. Actual overhead is greater than applied.
c. The predetermined rate equals the actual rate.
d. Actual overhead equals applied overhead.
20-55
SO 6 Distinguish between under- and overapplied manufacturing overhead.