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Transcript
Working Capital
Management
Helena Sůvová ©
Guest lecture for the
Czech University of Life Sciences
January, 2011
1
Content of the lecture
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Working Capital Terminology
Working Capital Decisions
Cash Conversion Cycle
Importance of Working Capital
Working Capital Strategy
Inventory management
Summary of the lecture
Assignments for the tutorial
2
Working Capital Terminology
•
•
•
•
•
Working capital (operating capital), sometimes called
gross working capital, simply refers to the firm's total
current assets.
Working capital management includes mgmt of current
assets and current liabilities, including accounts payable
(trade credit), notes payable (bank loans), and accrued
liabilities.
Typical current assets include: cash and cash equivalents,
accounts receivable, inventory.
Net working capital = current assets - current
liabilities.
Current assets are closely related to sales. Moreover
influenced by the size of the firm, the nature of the firm
and its policy, firm´s market position etc.
3
Working Capital Decisions
•
Working capital policy/strategy refers to decisions
– Target levels of each category of current assets
– Way of financing current assets
– Flexible rate financing versus fixed rate financing
• Working capital management = setting working capital
policy and carrying out that policy in day-to-day
operations
• short term decisions (one year period) - are
"reversible".
4
Working Capital Decisions
•
The basic working capital decisions include in day-today operations the following areas:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
•
manage collections from customers and disbursement to suppliers,
employees, taxes
bank and credit relations
liquidity management – determinate expected cash surplus or deficit
receivables management – firm´s credit policy, collection procedures
inventory management – investments in inventory and financing
Q: Which financial ratios reflect working capital
management?
5
Cash Conversion Cycle
(Working Capital /Operating Cycle)
6
Cash Conversion Cycle
Purchase
Sale on credit
Cash received
made
Inventory collection period
Receivables
collection period
Operating cycle
Payable deferral period
(avrg payment period)
Cash conversion cycle
The aim of WCM:
minimize the CCF
Cash outlay
7
Cash Conversion Cycle
• Operating cycle = inventory collection period + avrg receivables
collection period
• Cash conversion cycle = operating cycle – payable deferral
period……
• …. quick and convenient way to analyse ongoing liquidity
• How can we calculate cash conversion cycle?
–
–
–
–
–
accounts receivable turnover = net credit sales/avrg accounts receivable
receivable collection period = 365/accounts receivable turnover
inventory turnover = cost of goods sold/ avrg inventory
inventory conversion (collection) period = 365/inventory turnover ratio
payables turnover = (cost of goods sold + general, selling, administrative
expenses)/current liabilities
– payable deferral period = 365/payables turnover
8
Cash Conversion Cycle
• Research of the University of Wisconsin for 1996-2000*:
– The days working capital (DWC), defined as the sum of receivables and
inventories less payables divided by daily sales, averages 51.8 days
– The inventory turnover rate (once every 32.0 days)
– The number of days that payables are outstanding (32.4 days).
– In all instances, the standard deviation was relatively small
• Studies in the UK and the US have shown that weak financial management particularly poor working capital management and inadequate long-term
financing - is aprimary cause of failure among small businesses (Berryman,
1983; Dunn and Cheatham, 1993) => WCM is particularly important for
SMEs
• Performance of SMEs have traditionally been attributed to managerial
factors: manufacturing, marketing and operations, but working capital
management may have a consequent impact on SME survival and growth
*uses slightly different terminology
9
Cash Conversion Cycle
example from Plzeňský prazdroj
source: http://internet.kvalitne.cz/download/Prazdroj_PrezentaceLAST.ppt#304,18,Rozbor
http://internet.kvalitne.cz/download/Prazdroj_PrezentaceLAST.ppt#304,18,Rozbor čisté
istého
pracovní
pracovního kapitá
kapitálu (ČPK)
Net
working
capital
CZK
•bil.Technicky
vzato
, Plze
ňský Prazdroj, a. s.,
4
nedisponuje žádným čistým pracovním kapitálem.
3
2
1
– Financování části dlouhodobého majetku krátkodobým
kapitálem
– Může se to zdát riskantní, ale závisí to na skutečné
potřebě ČPK
• 0 Krátkodobé závazky takřka dvojnásobně převýšily
31.12.99
31.12.00
31.12.01
31.3.03
31.3.04
ú
hrn
ob
ěž
ných
aktiv
!
-1
-2
Current assets
Short-term liabilities
Net working capital
10
Importance of Working Capital
• Why do firms have working capital?
– Under perfect markets a firm would hold exactly enough
current assets and the value of the firm would be
independent of its working capital decisions.
– But the world is not perfect…
• Current assets typically > 40 % of total assets=> large
investment
• Working capital accounts are the most manageable
• The firm´s well-being shows up first in its working
capital accounts and the flow of cash
• Working capital management must ensure that a firm
can meet its short-term maturity obligations
11
Working Capital Strategy – in terms
of volume
•
•
Working Capital Strategy in terms of volume:
There is a theoretical optimum for working
capital…..=> moderate working capital strategy
• Working Capital > optimum → + higher safety (lower risk)
•
- lower rate of return
= conservative working capital strategy
•
• Working Capital < optimum → - lower safety (higher risk)
•
? rate of return
• rate of return depends upon the degree of reduction in sales
•
= aggressive working capital strategy
12
Working Capital Strategy – in terms
of volume
• Aggressive strategy
Safety stock
Total
current
assets
Required
minimum of
current
assets
• Conservative strategy
Safety stock
Required
minimum of
current
assets
Total
current
assets
13
Working Capital Strategy – in terms
of financing
• Idealized model for
agriculture
Current
assets
EUR
Fixed assets
Time
Short-term
credit
Long-term
debt plus
equity
• Fixed assets growing
steadily
• Current assets jump
at season
X
• In real world
different patterns
• But seasonal
patterns exist and
cause fluctuations
14
Working Capital Strategy – in terms
of financing
• Permanent current assets – some (minimum)
level of current assets that is always maintained
• Matching principle:
– Permanent assets (= fixed assets + permanent
current assets) financed with permanent sources of
financing
– Temporary assets – temporary financing
– The idea is to match the cash flow generating
characteristics with the maturity of the financing
15
Working Capital Strategy – in terms
of financing
• Working capital strategy .. in terms of financing
– Moderate: Match the maturity of the assets with the
maturity of the financing.
– Aggressive: Use short-term financing to finance permanent
assets.
– Conservative: Use permanent capital for permanent assets
and temporary assets.
16
Working Capital Strategy – Moderate
and Aggressive
$
Fluctuating current assets
}
Permanent current assets
Short-term
(temporary)
financing
Permanent
(L-T financing)
Equity + LT debt
Fixed Assets
Years
Lower dashed line, more aggressive.
17
Working Capital Strategy –
Conservative
$
Zero or very low S-T
debt
Permanent current assets
Permanent
(L-T financing)
Equity + LT debt
Fixed Assets
Years
18
Working Capital - determinants
Summary of working capital determinants:
• Nature of business
• Production cycle
• Business cycle
• Production policy
• Credit policy
• Growth and expansion
• Availability of raw material
• Profit
19
Inventory Management
• Inventory management … control of
investments in inventories
• Type of inventory
• Common major determinants of inventory level:
–
–
–
–
level of sales
length and technical nature of production process
durability, perishability
Coordination of production and sales
• Examples:
– Large inventories: machinery , precious metals
– Seasonal: agriculture, canning, sugar-making
– Low: oil and gas production, baking
20
Inventory Management
• Ways of improvement in inventory control?
• Effective inventory mgmt = turning over inventory as quickly as
possible without losing sales from inventory stockouts (return
versus risk)
• EOQ approach
• Costs of storage and carrying rise with larger and less frequent
orders
• Costs of placing orders are lower with larger and less frequent
orders
• ! Find a good classification of costs and determinate the
minimum of costs
21
Inventory Management
A. Carrying (and
storage) costs
B. Ordering costs
C. Costs related to
safety stocks
storage
cost of placing order
or production setup
costs
loss of sales
insurance
shipping and handling
costs
loss of customer
goodwill
cost of tied up
capital
quantity discounts
taken or lost
disruption or
production schedules
depreciation
Prevailing
character:
variable
Prevailing character:
fixed
22
Inventory Management
• Economic order quantity (EOQ) model
•
•
•
•
S… usage in units per period
O…order cost per order
C …carrying cost per unit per period
Q…quantity order
• Order cost = O . number of orders = O . S/Q
• Carrying cost = C . Q/2
• (it is supposed that inventory is depleted at a constant rate)
• Total cost = O . S/Q + C . Q/2
• We are looking for the quantity Q that minimizes total costs
23
Inventory Management
•
Q =
2 OS
C
.. basic EOQ model
• EOQ model = technique for determining the
optimal order size, i.e. order size that minimizes
total order costs and carrying cost
24
Inventory Management
Other approaches to inventory management:
• The ABC system
Size of investment in
the type of inventory
Level and intensity of
monitoring
A high
Perpetual – usually daily
B middle
Periodic (weekly,
monthly)
C low
Unsophisticated,
unregular
• Just-in-Time system
• Computerized systems for resource control
25
Summary
• Working capital management involves management of
current assets and current liabilities
• Net working capital = current assets – current liabilities
• Cash conversion cycle is a way to analyse the liquidity
and helps to set the level of net working capital.
• Conservative versus aggressive working capital
strategy/policy
• Inventory management = control of investments in
inventories
26
Assignments for the tutorial
1.
2.
3.
4.
Give your reaction: „Merely increasing the level of current
assets does not necessarily reduce the riskiness of the firm,
rather, composition of the current assets is important to
consider.“ (Q 11.1.)
How does seasonal nature of a firm´s sales influence the level
of current assets and the decision amount of short-term credit?
(Q 11.2.)
What is the advantage of matching the maturities of assets and
liabilities? Should fixed assets be financed by long term
financing; current assets – by ST financing? What is the
disadvantage? (Q 11.3.)
There have been times when short-term rates were higher than
long-term rates. Does this imply that a firm should use only
long-term debt and no short-term? (Q 11.4.)
27
Assignments for the tutorial
5.
Define and explain:
I
I
I
I
I
6.
A firm´s cash conversion cycle is 40 days. The receivables
turnover is 8, payables turnover is 10.
I
I
7.
working capital, net working capital
cash conversion cycle
permanent current assets
seasonal, or temporary current assets
matching principle
What is the firm´s inventory turnover?
What are accounts receivable if credit sales are 920 000 EUR?
What was the net working capital of ČEZ in 2005 and 2004?
What is the main source of CEZ´s short-term financing? Can
we recognize whether CEZ´s working capital strategy is
conservative or aggressive?
28
Assignments for the tutorial
8.
a)
b)
c)
The Warner Flooring sales 1.2 mil. USD. Fixed assets total 500
000 USD, it wishes to maintain 60 % debt ratio, interest cost is
10 % on both S-T and L-T debt. Three alternatives regarding
projected current assets: 1) aggressive (current asstes = 45 %
of sales), 2) average (50 % of sales), 3) conservative (60 % of
sales). Expected EBIT is 12 % of sales, tax rate is 40 %.
What is the expected ROE under each strategy?
There is an assumption that earnings rate and level of expected
sales are independent of current asset policy. Is this a valid
assumption?
How would the overall riskiness of the firm vary under each
policy? (P 11.2.)
29
Assignments for the tutorial
9.
Inventory management: Describe the basic nature of the fundamental
inventory control model, discussing specifically the nature of increasing
costs, decreasing costs and total costs.
What are the probable effects of the following decisions on inventory
holdings?
10.
•
•
•
•
11.
Changing the structure of suppliers
Greater use of of intermediate goods for production instead of raw mtl
Substantial increase of the number of styles produced
Starting to manufacture for specific orders
EOQ analysis: Tiger Corp purchases 1 200 000 units per year of one
component. the fixed xcost per order is 25$. The annual carrying cost of
the item is 27 % of its 2 $ cost. a) Determine the EOQ model under: (1)no
changes, (2) order cost of zero, and (3) carrying cost of zero. b) What do
your answers illustrate about the EOQ model. Explain.
30
Assignments for the tutorial
Yield curve
31