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Transcript
PHILOSOPHY, ITS MAIN
CATEGORIES AND PROBLEMS
PLAN
THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY
OUTLOOK, ITS ESSENCE, STRUCTURE
AND SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMAN LIFE
HISTORICAL TYPES OF OUTLOOK
SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY
PHILOSOPHY
Philosophy is a manner of thinking about the most basic
questions and problems faced by human beings. Most people
believe they have nothing to do with Philosophy and it has
nothing to do with them. However there are times that such
basic and important questions and problems will occur and be
experienced by most human beings. It is at these times that
Philosophy has arisen all over the world and within every
culture. People will experience the death of others and they will
wonder whether or not there is anything more to our existence
than life in the physical body. Questions will arise as to whether
or not there are actually souls or spirits. Do they survive the
death of the body? Are they real? Is there a God, many gods?
What is God like? What is religion all about? Are the stories
true?
PHILOSOPHY
Philosophy is a human endeavor that has changed the course
of history. We are all what we are, in part, because of the ideas
of philosophers. Yet philosophy has and does impact the lives of
just about every thinking person on the planet. In fact, the very
way in which we think is partly the result of the ideas which
philosophers have produced over the ages and in all cultures.
Philosophers have contributed to our ideas about our science,
society and forms of government and to our ideas about deities.
The philosophical outlook influenced on a forming of different
traditional systems of medicine: acupuncture, herbal therapy
etc.
PHILOSOPHY
The aim of the study of course
«Philosophy» is a formation of
personality of future doctors, their civic
qualities; gaining of the foundations for
the philosophical understanding of
human relations with the world and
themselves for future medical and life
practice.
What do you think Philosophy is?
Let me list a few that are not correct. Some are very off the mark and others are
only partially correct.
Student attempts to define philosophy
1.
Logical reasoning to answer any questions or problems.
2.
Means by which to view and encounter life.
3.
A system of beliefs and behaviors based upon experience and
judgment.
4.
Different views and beliefs that people have.
5.
Just personal opinions
6.
Logical thinking or reasoning, taking into account all that is known to
be convincing
7.
A frame of mind
8.
A way of viewing the world and handling life’s experiences and
explaining it.
9.
Great thinkers thought and ideas.
10.
The way a person is able to maneuver their intellectual ability.
11.
A theory based upon moral codes and reasoning.
12.
Study of one’s thoughts without the impact of external opinions.
13.
Someone’s ideas and outlook on life or anything.
14.
Someone’s point of view.
What do you think Philosophy is?
The art of reasoning, thinking and discussing.
16.
Logic, knowledge, a body of principles to follow.
17.
A discipline of thinking, which involves moral reasoning, logic and
principles.
18.
View or Opinion or Belief or Theory
19.
Ability to think and make your own judgments.
20.
Things I live by.
21.
A belief, way of life or religion.
22.
A way of Life
23.
A translation of the complexities from all angles and summarizing it to
its simplistic terms.
24.
The way the individual interprets ort rationalizes what is encountered.
25.
Analyzing, questioning, discussing and thinking.
26.
Information handed down from generation to generation: beliefs,
stories, rituals, and experiences.
15.
PHILOSOPHY
(FROM Greek philos, meaning “lover”
and sophia, meaning “wisdom”)
The great virtue of philosophy is that it
teaches not what to think, but how to
think. It is the study of meaning, of the
principles underlying conduct, thought
and knowledge.
REASON
Practical reason has to do with acting
to realize the goal
Theoretical reason – has to do with
beliefs.
A theoretical proposition is good if it conforms to reality,
while a practical proposition has more complicated
and debatable standards. While practical reason
decides what to do, it cannot remake reality any way
it likes. The successful practical agent must take into
account truths about the world.
Introduction to the Five
Branches of Philosophy
Philosophy can be divided into five branches which address the
following questions:
Metaphysics
Ethics
Study of
Existence
Study of
Knowledge
Study of Action
Politics
Study of Force
Æsthetics
Study of Art
Epistemology
What's out
there?
How do I know
about it?
What should I
do?
What actions are
permissible?
What can life be
like?
The main branches of philosophy
There is a hierarchical relationship between these branches as
can be seen in the Concept Chart. At the root is Metaphysics,
the study of existence and the nature of existence. Closely
related is Epistemology, the study of knowledge and how we
know about reality and existence. Dependent on Epistemology
is Ethics, the study of how man should act. Ethics is dependent
on Epistemology because it is impossible to make choices
without knowledge. A subset of Ethics is Politics: the study of
how men should interact in a proper society and what
constitutes proper. Esthetics, the study of art and sense of life is
slightly separate, but depends on Metaphysics, Epistemology,
and Ethics.
Metaphysics
What is Metaphysics?
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy responsible for the
study of existence. It is the foundation of a worldview. It
answers the question "What is?" It encompasses everything that
exists, as well as the nature of existence itself. It says whether
the world is real, or merely an illusion. It is a fundamental view
of the world around us.
Why is Metaphysics important?
Metaphysics is the foundation of philosophy. Without an
explanation or an interpretation of the world around us, we
would be helpless to deal with reality. We could not feed
ourselves, or act to preserve our lives. The degree to which our
metaphysical worldview is correct is the degree to which we are
able to comprehend the world, and act accordingly. Without this
firm foundation, all knowledge becomes suspect. Any flaw in our
view of reality will make it more difficult to live.
Epistemology
What is Epistemology?
Epistemology is the study of our method of acquiring knowledge. It
answers the question, "How do we know?" It encompasses the nature
of concepts, the constructing of concepts, the validity of the senses,
logical reasoning, as well as thoughts, ideas, memories, emotions, and
all things mental. It is concerned with how our minds are related to
reality, and whether these relationships are valid or invalid.
Why is Epistemology important?
Epistemology is the explanation of how we think. It is required in order
to be able to determine the true from the false, by determining a
proper method of evaluation. It is needed in order to use and obtain
knowledge of the world around us. Without epistemology, we could not
think. More specifically, we would have no reason to believe our
thinking was productive or correct, as opposed to random images
flashing before our mind. With an incorrect epistemology, we would
not be able to distinguish truth from error. The consequences are
obvious. The degree to which our epistemology is correct is the degree
to which we could understand reality, and the degree to which we
could use that knowledge to promote our lives and goals. Flaws in
epistemology will make it harder to accomplish anything.
Ethics
What is Ethics?
Ethics is the branch of study dealing with what is the proper course of
action for man. It answers the question, "What do I do?" It is the study of
right and wrong in human endeavors. At a more fundamental level, it is the
method by which we categorize our values and pursue them. Do we pursue
our own happiness, or do we sacrifice ourselves to a greater cause? Is that
foundation of ethics based on the Bible, or on the very nature of man
himself, or neither?
Why is Ethics important?
Ethics is a requirement for human life. It is our means of deciding a course
of action. Without it, our actions would be random and aimless. There
would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way
to pick between a limitless number of goals. Even with an ethical standard,
we may be unable to pursue our goals with the possibility of success. To
the degree which a rational ethical standard is taken, we are able to
correctly organize our goals and actions to accomplish our most important
values. Any flaw in our ethics will reduce our ability to be successful in our
endeavors.
Politics
What is Politics?
Politics is ethics applied to a group of
people.
Why is this Important?
Politics tells you how a society must be
set up and how one should act within a
society. Except for hermits, this comes up
a lot.
Æsthetics
What is Æsthetics?
Æsthetics is the study of art. It includes what art consists of, as well as
the purpose behind it. Does art consist of music, literature, and painting?
Or does it include a good engineering solution, or a beautiful sunset? These
are the questions that aimed at in esthetics. It also studies methods of
evaluating art, and allows judgments of the art. Is art in the eye of the
beholder? Does anything that appeals to you fit under the umbrella of art?
Or does it have a specific nature? Does it accomplish a goal?
Why is Æsthetics important?
Art has existed through all of recorded human history. It is unique to
humans because of our unique form of thinking. Its importance is based on
this nature, specifically, man's ability to abstract. Art is a little understood
tool of man to bring meaning to abstract concept. Esthetics is important
because it delves into the reason why art has always existed, the burning
need of mankind through the ages to see the world in a different, clear
way. It further evaluates art by the standard of human life, and whether it
accomplishes the job of satisfying man's intellectual needs, or whether it
tends to hurt or make worse those needs.
The branches of philosophy
Axiology: the study of value; the
investigation of its nature, criteria, and
metaphysical status.
Two parts of axiology
Ethics: the study of values in human
behaviour or the study of moral
problems.
Æsthetics: the study of value in the
arts or the inquiry into feelings,
judgments, or standards of beauty and
related concepts. Philosophy of art is
concerned with judgments of sense,
taste, and emotion.
The branches of philosophy
Dialectics – the study of sources,
essence and laws of development
Logic – the study of the laws and
forms of argument
Philosophical anthropology – the
study of a man
Ten rules of Philosophy
Allow the spirit of wonder to flourish in your breast
Doubt everything until the evidence convinces you
of its truth
3. Love the truth
4. Divide and Conquer
5. Collect and construct
6. Conjecture and refute
7. Revise and rebuild
8. Seek simplicity
9. Live the truth
10. Live the good
1.
2.
Outlook
It is a vision of the world from the only
“center-position” of man
Basic components of Outlook
Cognitive
Value
Motivating-active
Basic levels of outlook
Vital-practical
Theoretical
Historical types of outlook
1. Mythology
2. Religion
3. Philosophy
FUNCTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY
Cognitive
Methodological
Critical
Vital-practical
That's all. Thank you for your
attention.