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Judaism and Early
The Judeo-Christian Spirit
The Judaic Tradition
Judaism preceded the Christian faith
Great influence on Western civilization
Monotheistic religion
Old Testament--man’s relationship with
History and the Israelites
David (c.1000-961 B.C.)
Solomon (961-922 B.C.)Temple of
Babylonian exile (587-450 B.C.)
Aramaic, the Devil
Return to Palestine, Temple rebuilt
Herod d. 4 B.C. Diaspora, persecution
The Hebrew Bible
Bible transmitted orally until 1,000 B.C
Torah-- instruction
Prophets--duty to God
Writings-- psalms, wisdom
Book of Job
Apocalypse-- coming of the messiah:
overthrow foreign rulers, restore glories of
King David.
The Rise of Christianity
By 400, Christianity religion of Roman
Forgiveness of sins, everlasting life after
death: Sermon on the Mount
Peter given the keys; first pope
Jesus of Nazareth
Love one another, forsake material goods
Teacher: parables
From his death came the beginning of the
new religious faith
The Growth of Christianity
Paul (d. 64?)
Roman army sacked Jerusalem destroyed
Second Temple.(70)
Gospels written after 70
Christianity separate from Judaism in 2nd
Eucharist: Christ’s last supper
Early Christianity
Baptism: a new beginning
Constantine: baptism before death
New Testament written in Greek
Paul’s letters followed by four gospels
Early Christians worshipped in catacombs
Catacomb wall paintings depicted religious
Christianity in the Late Roman
Christianity’s equality before God was
attractive to slaves and the poor
Art--blend of Christian figures and
classical style: Sarcophagus of Junius
Symbols--ikons: sacred images
Constantine and Christianity
Constantine’s dream “In this sign you will
Spread Christianity throughout the Roman
By the 5th century, the Christian church
was the most powerful institution in the
Christian Philosophy
Pagan philosophies: Manicheanism and
Hypatia: killed by Christian zealots
Library at Alexandria burned
Eventually classical beliefs were
synthesized into the Church’s beliefs.
Patristic tradition: Four Fathers of Church
Augustine of Hippo
Christian soul always at war with itself.
Original sin
Rome’s sacking in 410 was blamed on
Christian’s not doing civic duties
Augustine asked Christians to obey the
The Christian Empires:Rome
and Byzantium
Grand new capital of Roman Empire:
Constantinople in Turkey
Rome, sacked by barbarians went into
decline and turmoil
Difference in the Christian Greek Church:
Byzantine Orthodox and the Latin:
St. Peter’s and the Pope
St. Peter’s was built over the saint’s tomb
outside Rome
Basilica-style structure for early churches
Narthex, aisles, nave, transept and apse
Rome moved to Ravenna; 476, last
Roman emperor abdicated to the Goths
Pope supreme authority of the Roman
Justinian and the Byzantine
Byzantine Empire stable: Church under
the rule of the emperor
Emperor Justinian, 6th century, reformed
Roman law, fostered culture; co-ruled with
wife Theodora
Commissioned the Hagia Sophia: Largest
church in Christendom
Hagia Sophia
Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of
Miletus: built it in 6 years—rebuilt after fire
destroyed it.
Domed basilica: rectangular hall with a
dome in the center. Pendentive
construction. Dome: 180 feet in height
Intricate decoration, mosaics, windows,
Ravenna: Showcase of the
Christian Arts
Mosaic representations of Bible stories
Sant’Apollinaire Nuovo: Procession of
Virgin Martyrs
Christ depicted as royalty--to please royal
Decline of naturalism-- spiritual, symbolic
San Vitale of Ravenna
San Vitale: truly Byzantine; central plan
Second story gallery for female
Mosaics of Justinian and Theodora
Royal power and Church power
Christianity and the Arts
Struggle of early church against music
and theater
Music, associated with paganism,
banned from Christian worship
Vocal music: Chants: Gregorian chants
(plainchant or plainsong)
Monophonic until the 12th century
The Christians and Theater
Actors could not be baptized
Virtually disappeared from society until the
10th century
Iconoclasm: Icons removed from
Byzantine churches and destroyed
Struggles between the Christian faith and
creative arts