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Early Medieval Europe (ca. 300-900) Western Europe Barbarians! What do you think of? What images come to mind? Western Europe The Germanic Kingdoms Farmers Relations with Rome The Good Served in Roman military Imitated Roman customs Trade and alliances Settled in Roman territory The Bad Military conflicts Sack of Rome (410) Western Europe Sack of Rome (410) Western Europe The Huns Leo I and Attila Nomadic fighters Based in eastern Europe west! ATTILA THE HUN (r. 443454) Gaul and Italy (451-52) Approached Rome, encountered Leo I Plague, eastern forces Hun withdrawal Hunnic Empire disintegrated (454) Western Europe 2001 Western Europe “Fall of Rome” Romulus Augustulus Last Western emperors (455-476) Ruled fragments of Western Europe Romulus Augustulus (r. 475-76) deposed Western Europe The Germanic Kingdoms The Visigoths The Ostrogoths THE FRANKS Clovis (r. 481-511) THE ANGLES AND SAXONS Founded Merovingian dynasty Raids settled along southeastern English coast The Vandals The Germanic Kingdoms (ca. 530) Western Europe Questions? Western Europe The Papacy Office of bishop of Rome One of five “patriarchal” bishops in Roman Christendom Perceived as “first among equals” by eastern bishops Filled “power vacuum” left by imperial absence in west… Western Europe Pope Gregory the Great (r. 590-604) “Servant of the servants of God” Paradigmatic for medieval popes Papal affairs in West Supreme spiritual leader Supervised papal lands In touch with western monarchs Temporal authority Loyal subject of eastern emperor Sometimes had to act on his own authority in Italy Western Europe Monasticism Solitary asceticism as way of life away from “world” Began in Egypt Reaction to worldliness of imperial church Kinds of monks: hermits, communal monks Western Europe Benedictine Monasticism Founder: Benedict of Nursia (ca. 480-543) Began as hermit, lived in cave Reluctant abbot Established monasteries Rule Detailed Very successful For women too Western Europe Abbey of Monte Cassino, above Cassino, Italy Western Europe Spread of Roman Christianity in Western Europe The Franks Clovis converted Franks followed Ireland Patrick (391? – 461?) England “I am greatly God’s debtor, because he granted me so much grace, that through me many people would be reborn in God…” (Confessio, 38) Augustine of Canterbury sent Angles and king converted By 8th century western Europe was predominantly Catholic, under spiritual authority of papacy Western Europe Questions? Western Europe Kingdom of the Franks Dominant in western Europe Ruled originally by Merovingians Ruled later by Carolingians Deposed last Merovingian Allied with papacy Western Europe Charlemagne (r. 768-814) As king, ruled by God’s will Local rule: counts Regional governors Implemented legislation Collected taxes Assembled armies Missi dominici Supervised counts Western Europe Emperor Charlemagne Pope faced hostility in Rome fled to Charlemagne To Rome Pope returned with Frankish escort Charlemagne arrived soon after Crowned augustus Christmas Day (800) Emperor Charlemagne and “new” Roman Empire? Western Europe Western Europe Questions? The Byzantine Empire The Eastern Roman Empire lived on… Based in CONSTANTINOPLE “New Rome” Residence of emperor Greek in culture Constantine and Constantinople The Byzantine Empire Justinian and Theodora Who were they? JUSTINIAN: emperor (r. 527-565) Theodora: “Partner in Counsel” Justinian and Legislation: Codex Iustinianus Committee collected all imperial edicts update, edit, simplify, codify them The Byzantine Empire Justinian and Religion Emperor was directly involved in religion Sought unified “orthodox” Christianity divine favor! Twilight of Paganism Pagans had to become Christian lose property, or exile Closed Academy, Athens Ordered construction of HAGIA SOPHIA (537) The Byzantine Empire Hagia Sophia The Byzantine Empire Reconquest of the West Justinian’s dream: universal Roman Empire again Conquest North Africa (534) Italy (540) Southern Spain (552) Ultimate failure Bankruptcy Roman forces were overextended The Byzantine Empire Mosaics Common in antiquity Bits of stone, glass unified image The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire The Iconoclastic Controversy Emperors were hostile to icons, ordered their destruction (726) Controversy: iconoclasts vs. iconodules Conclusions Iconoclasm first condemned at Second Council of Nicaea (787) Feast of Orthodoxy (February 19, 843) Response to resurgent iconoclasm Iconoclasm reversed for good Virgin and Child between Sts. Theodore and George, 6th or early 7th cent. The Byzantine Empire Questions? Early Medieval Europe How was Europe different now from the classical past? Politically? Religiously? Culturally?