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1st Punic War – 264-241 BC
Hamilcar Barca
• Carthage loses Sicily, and other islands
• Carthage pays indemnity
• Carthage focuses more on Spanish holdings
(Hamilcar Barca et fam.)
• Roman control now goes far south on the
• Rome can turn attention north, up to the foot of
the Alps, alarming Gauls (cf. Marcellus in combat)
2nd Punic War – 218-201
Fabius Maximus’ time
• Hannibal Barca enters Italy
• Spends 15 years moving
up and down the
• Hannibal recalled to
Africa and defeated
by Scipio Africanus at
Zama in 202
Crossing Alps
Punic War Campaigns
Upshots of Carthage’s surrender
• Carthage gives up all claims to
• the immediate territory of
Carthage would remain free
• all elephants were to be ceded to
the Romans
• Carthage could keep only ten
• Carthage could not make war
Scipio Africanus
without Roman consent
• Carthage would pay 10,000 talents
in 50 annual installments
Punic War – 149-146
• Massinissa, King of Numidians in north Africa,
Roman ally, attacked Carthaginian territory
• Carthage responded, but was defeated
• Rome took it as a violation of the terms ending 2nd
Punic War and invaded Carthage. This was an
excuse for the Senate.
• Campaign came under leadership of Scipio
Aemilianus Africanus (Younger) grandson of first
Scipio Africanus
Carthage itself was taken
• Then came new scenes of horror. The fire spread and carried everything down, and the
soldiers did not wait to destroy the buildings little by little, but pulled them all down
together. So the crashing grew louder, and many fell with the stones into the midst of the
dead. Others were seen still living, especially old men, women and young children who had
hidden in the inmost nooks of the houses, some of them wounded, some more or less
burned, and uttering horrible cries. Still others, thrust out and falling from such a height
with the stones, timbers, and fire, were torn asunder into all kinds of horrible shapes,
crushed and mangled.
• Nor was this the end of their miseries, for the street cleaners who were removing the
rubbish with axes, mattocks, and boathooks, and making the roads passable, tossed with
these instruments the dead and living together into holes in the ground, sweeping them
along like sticks and stones or turning them over with their iron tools, and man was used
for filling up a ditch. . . . Horses ran over them, crushing their faces and skulls, not purposely
on the part of the riders, but in their headlong haste . . . all together made everybody
frantic and heedless of the spectacle before their eyes.
• Six days and nights were consumed in this kind of turmoil, the soldiers being changed so
that they might not be worn out with toil, slaughter, want of sleep, and these horrid sights.
Carthage Destroyed
• Carthage burned seventeen days before it
was entirely consumed. Then the plough
was passed over the soil to put an end in
legal form to the existence of the city.
Houses might never again be built and corn
might never again be sown upon the ground
where it had stood.
Turner’s Destruction of Carthage