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Opening (3/1/11) Enduring Understanding Copy this down •When a civilization collapses it is followed by period of rapid decline in standard of living, education and prosperity. •What would happen if the US civilization collapsed? Next Unit is Early Middle Ages Topics include… 1) Byzantine Empire and Justinian 2) Franks – Clovis, Charles ‘The Hammer’ Martel, and Charlemagne 3) Vikings and the creation of the = Feudal System REVIEW ITEMS FOR THIS TOPIC • Justinian - Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from AD 527 to AD 565, led the greatest period in Byzantine history • Justinian Code - Collection of laws of the Roman Empire broken up into four parts: – 1. The Code = useful Roman laws – 2. The Digest = summarized Roman legal opinions – 3. The Institutes = guide for law students – 4. The Novella = laws passed after 534 AD • Theodora – Justinian’s wife who helped change the status of women, allowing Christian women to own property • Greek Fire – Flammable liquid that could be sprayed or thrown. • Icon – Holy pictures of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or the saints, kept in homes and venerated, or honored at Church. • Iconoclasts – Believed that having icons in church was the same as worshipping idols • Heresy – Opinion that conflicts with official church beliefs. • Excommunication – Removal from membership within the church. • Mosaic – A picture or design made from small pieces of enamel, glass, or stone • Cyrillic – A Slavic alphabet developed by Cyril, a Christian missionary, to teach the Bible to Slavs in central and eastern Europe. • Hagia Sophia – “Holy Wisdom” church built in Constantinople by Justinian in just 6 years. 1. Describe Justinian’s accomplishments: Codified Roman/Byzantine Laws. Under his reign the Empire reached its greatest size. 2. Describe the Justinian Code. What impact did it have on Western Europe? Basis of Byzantine law. It covered such areas as crime, marriage, property, and slavery. By AD 1100s, it was being used in Western Europe, providing a framework for many European legal systems. It preserved the Roman idea that people should be ruled by laws rather than by the whims of leaders. 3. List all the reasons why Justinian’s reign could be considered a Golden Age for the Byzantine Empire? During his reign, the empire reached its greatest size, reclaiming territory in the Western Roman Empire, a strong centralized government helped the empire run smoothly, alliances were made with foreign powers, the empire had effective forces to protect its frontiers, military forces were well trained, weapons and armor were well designed, the empire had a strong navy (ships equipped with “Greek Fire”), wealthy (Constantinople), controlled sea routes, emperor paid for large, magnificent public buildings with taxes. 4. Although Byzantine scholars produced many original works, what else (very significant) did they pass on to future generations? They passed on the learnings of ancient Greece, Rome, and the East. 5. What was the main subject of Byzantine art? What forms of art did this typically include? Religion was the main subject of Byzantine art. Murals and icons covered walls, floors, and ceilings of churches, and mosaics covered floors, walls, and arches. (The did not try to imitate reality, but to inspire adoration of religious figures and to help people look toward the afterlife) 6. Describe the architecture found in the Byzantine Empire. What is one of its most famous buildings? The Byzantines created great religious architecture. One of the world’s great buildings is the church of the Hagia Sophia. Byzantine architects were the first to solve the problem of placing a round dome over a rectangular building. THINGS WE WILL DISCUSS AGAIN: • What events and developments led to the gradual decline of the Byzantine Empire? • Wars and conflicts with outside powers began after Justinian died in AD 565. War to the east with the Persians. The Lombards (Germanic tribe) settled Italy. The Avars and Slavs invaded the Balkan Peninsula. The Muslim Empire conquered Syria, Palestine, and much of North Africa. By AD 650, the Byzantines had lost many lands. • During the 1100s, the Seluq Turks, a nomadic people from central Asia, captured much of Asia Minor (an important source of food and soldiers for the empire). The Turks then attacked Constantinople. Constantinople asked the West for help, but in 1204, the West turned against the Byzantine Empire and captured Constantinople. In AD 1261, the Byzantines recaptured Constantinople allowing the Byzantine Empire to continue for 200 years. • By the 1300s, the Ottoman Turks began to threaten Byzantine territory, moving into the Balkans. In 1361, they took Adrianople, and in 1453, they captured Constantinople, finally ending the Byzantine Empire. Roman Empire divided in 294 AD by Diocletian Constantine’s City-Constantinopolis Constantinople All Roads Lead to………………….………Konstantinople? Byzantine Empire Role of Constantinople: • Seat of the Byzantine Empire until Ottoman conquest (1453 AD) • Preserved classical Greco-Roman culture • Crossroads/Center of trade –Lots of tax money to Byzantine Empire Justinian I Why is he so important? 1. Led the revival of the Byzantine Empire – Goal was to recapture the glory and former territories of the Roman Empire – Helped to influence later rulers and scholars to preserve Greek and Roman literature in their libraries 2. Created a law code based off of Roman Law – Justinian Code – ensured that people were ruled by laws and not by the whims of their leaders 3. Expanded trade and wealth of Byzantines –Western end of Silk Road, protected by naval supremacy, revenue from taxes on trade make Constantinople and the Byzantines extremely rich 4. Built the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople in 532 AD –Built as a Christian Church, showed the importance of Christianity in their lives Justinian I What was the influence of Justinian’s codification of Roman law on the Byzantine Empire and later legal codes? • As the first to codify Roman law, Justinian provided the basis for the law codes of Western Europe. • Codification of Roman law impacted and influenced future European legal codes in nations (ex. – England) Justinian I What was Justinian’s influence on the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and its economy? • Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture and prosperity. • Reconquest of former Roman territories • Expansion of trade The enlargement of the Eastern Roman Empire's territory between the rise to power of Justinian (red, 527) and his death (orange, 565) “Greek Fire” = secret to Byzantine Naval Power This secret, flammable mixture kept the enemies of Byzantium at a distance in naval warfare. “Greek Fire”…flamethrower! Like Napalm in Vietnam Clay Grenades that were filled with Greek fire, 10th-12th Centuries National Historical Museum, Athens, Greece Byzantine Culture Greek Orthodox Christianity combined with imperial patronage (support) enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique style of art and of architecture. Byzantine Culture What were the contributions of Byzantine art and architecture? Byzantine Culture What were the contributions of Byzantine art and architecture? • Inspiration provided by Christian Religion (mostly) and imperial power (powerful men showing off) Byzantine Culture What were the contributions of Byzantine art and architecture? • Icons (religious images) Byzantine Culture What were the contributions of Byzantine art and architecture? • Mosaics in public and religious structures What is a Mosaic? • Mosaic = An artistic technique that uses tiny pieces of glass or stone to create a larger image – In the Byzantine Empire mosaics were most commonly seen in churches and displayed religious images • They could be found on the floors, in domes, on walls, and inside arches • Byzantine artist wanted to inspire faith and admiration for Christianity Mosaics from the Hagios Demetrios (Church of St. Demetrius, patron saint of Thessoloniki, Byzantine’s 2nd largest city) Mosaic from San Vitale in Ravenna, showing the Emperor Justinian and Bishop Maximian of Ravenna surrounded by clerics and soldiers. Jerusalem on the Madaba (Jordan) Map The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics is in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. It is the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. Christ is flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist. The mosaics were made in the 12th century. Byzantine Culture What were the contributions of Byzantine art and architecture? • Hagia Sophia (a Byzantine domed church) – Means – Holy Wisdom The current building was originally constructed as a church between 532 and 537 A.D. on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, and was in fact the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site. Blend of Western and Eastern Architecture Byzantine Culture Greek and Roman traditions were also preserved in the Byzantine Empire. How did Greek and Roman culture survive within the Byzantine Empire? Byzantine Culture 1. Continued flourishing of Greco-Roman traditions and culture 2. Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries 3. Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West) 4. Greek Orthodox Christianity (dominates the eastern half of Europe to this day) Questions to be able to answer (3/2) • What language did the Byzantines use? • What was the Hagia Sohpia? • What was the point/theme of Byzantine artwork? • How did the Byzantines preserve Greek and Roman culture?