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Transcript
Introduction to Biopsychology
[PSB 4002]
Professor Robert Lickliter
DM 260 / 305-348-3441
[email protected]
website: dpblab.fiu.edu
Midterm # 4
Tuesday Dec. 04 / 12 noon
chapters 21, 22, and 2
lecture through Thursday, Nov. 29
sample study questions and slides
available by Tuesday, Nov. 27 at
course website / dpblab.fiu.edu
Effects of Aging
Effects of Aging
Alzheimer's Disease
• Onset
– Early onset symptoms of Alzheimer’s appear
before the patient turns 60. Less common than
later onset. Some evidence that genetic factors
are at play.
– Late onset Alzheimer’s is the most common form
of the disease. Some inherited traits that run in
families, but the genetic factor is less clear than
early onset.
Alzheimer’s Disease
• Early Symptoms
– Memory impairment
– Decreased language function
– Change in emotional behavior/personality
– Altered perception
– Decreased problem-solving ability/cognitive skill
Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer's Disease
• Post mortem examination of brain tissue from
Alzheimer’s patents is the only way to
diagnose the disease with absolute
confidence.
– Neurofibrillary tangles (fibers of protein that have
twisted and clogged the cell
– Neuritic plaques (abnormal clusters of dead and
dying nerve cells, proteins, and neural tissue)
– Senile plaques (dying nerve cells around areas
that have accumulated protein build-up.
Alzheimer’s Disease
• Treatment
– There is no cure for Alzheimer’s at this time.
Medicines (Dnepezil, Memantine) can help slow
the progression of the disease, but not stop it.
– Management of the disorder can include
• Change in the home environment
• Alterations of daily activities to promote healthy sleep
and less confusion
• Support from family members
Depression
• A spectrum disorder, it can range from mild to
severe and chronic with differential prognosis,
treatment, and outcomes
– Some evidence for heredity, but no single genetic
link has yet been found.
• Everyone at some point has felt sad, blue,
miserable, unhappy, or “down in the dumps”.
• True clinical depression affects the mood for
long periods of time, with intense feelings of:
– Anger
– Loss
– Frustration
– Sudden loss of interest in everyday activities that
you used to love
Depression
• Onset of depression is a process of
equifinality
– Alcohol or drug abuse
– Certain medical conditions
– Steroid use
– Sleep problems
– STRESS!
Depressive Symptoms
Depression
Depression
• Symptoms of major depression include
– Fatigue and lack of energy
– Becoming withdrawn or isolated
– Difficulty concentrating
– Lack of interest in pleasurable activities
– Thoughts of death or suicide
– Altered sleep patterns
– Feeling of hopelessness
Depression
• Treatment options
– “Talk therapy” is popular. Patients try to discover
the root cause of their depression and confront
the issue
– Antidepressant medications are typically Selective
serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
• Fluoxetine
• Sertraline
• Paroxetine