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Chapter 8
Lecture Questions
Section 1 (pages 176-185)
Revised November 2012
1. What is deviance? Are all norm
violations considered deviant acts?
Behavior that violates
significant social norms is
called deviance.
There are always individuals
who break the rules of their
society or the group.
Every society has countless
norms that govern behavior.
Thus, many norms
governing behavior, are
unavoidably broken.
Not all norm violations are
considered deviant acts.
2. Give an example of how
an act is considered
deviant in one situation
and not in another.
• To kill someone is generally illegal.
• However, not every situation is that
• Military• kill someone while in combat.
• Police• kill someone in the line of duty.
• Self-defense• kill someone who is trying to harm you.
3. Give an example of how an act
is considered deviant in one
society and not in another.
Divorce is legal in
the U.S.
It is prohibited in
the Philippines.
It is also prohibited
by the Amish.
4. Give an example of how an act
is considered deviant in one period
of time and not in another.
Drug use in the U.S.
 Legal until 1914, illegal
after that. (Harrison
Narcotics Act)
Alcohol use in the U.S.
 Illegal from 19201933. (Prohibition)
Throughout most of the
1900s it was illegal for
stores to do business on
Sunday. (Blue Laws)
 Today, most stores are
open some on Sunday.
5. How do people come to
be considered deviant?
• Suppose a person gets a speeding ticket.
– That person would not be considered deviant on the
basis of the one event.
• However, if that person was continually caught
driving at high speeds, such reckless behavior
would be considered deviant.
– Repeating an offense is not the only way a person
comes to be labeled as a deviant.
• A person who commits an act that has serious
negative consequences for society—such as
murder, sexual assault, or robbery—is likely to be
labeled as deviant because of his or her single
– OJ Simpson
6. Using the picture on page 176,
why do you think American
businesspersons consider tattoos
Because some business people prefer
employees to have a professional,
conservative appearance and manner.
They also consider tattoos to be a sign
of rebellious youthful behavior.
7. What two components are required for
someone to be labeled as deviant? What is a
stigma? Give an example of a stigma, not in the
To be considered deviant by society, an individual must first be
detected committing a deviant act.
A person will not be labeled as deviant unless his or her
deviant behavior is in some way known to other people.
Next, the individual must be stigmatized by society.
A stigma is a mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant
apart from the rest of society.
Stigmas have been used as a form of social control
throughout history.
 For example, the ancient Greeks cut or burned
signs into the bodies of criminals to warn others
that these deviants were to be avoided.
 Some people have suggested that the cars of
people convicted of driving while drunk should be
marked in some way, such as a decal.
 Today, sex offenders in most states must register
whenever they move.
You can find their name and picture on the
8. List the five social functions of
deviance and briefly explain each.
Also, give an example of each.
Clarifying norms
Deviance serves to define the boundaries of acceptable behavior.
Unifying the group
Deviance also serves to draw the line between conforming members of society and
“outsiders”—the nonconforming members.
Minor acts of deviance serve as a safety valve when people feel their lives or social
conditions aren’t good.
For example, participating in unauthorized demonstrations allows people to express political or social
Promoting social change
Deviance can help prompt social change by identifying problem areas.
This “us against them” attitude reinforces the sense of community and the belief in shared values.
Diffusing tension
The punishment of norm violators serves as a warning to others that certain behaviors will not be
tolerated by society.
Looking at crime statistics and correcting the situation.
Providing jobs
Deviance also provides legitimate jobs for a wide range of people.
Judges, lawyers, police officers, prison personnel, and parole officers have jobs related to one aspect
of deviance—crime.
9. Using the picture on page 177,
what visual signs act as stigmas of
deviance for homeless persons?
Many people avoid looking at, talking to, or
walking near homeless people.
10. Using the case study on
page 178, why do young
people join gangs?
Young people join gangs for many
Gain friendship.
Sense of family.
Economic support.
Wichita Street Gang
 1 Lieutenant
 1 Night Lieutenant
 10 Detectives
 2 Night Detectives
 4 Gang Intelligence
Vision of the
W.P.D. Gang Unit
 To focus on crimes committed by gang
 With the intent to identify and formulate and viable
 Assemble and disseminate intelligence
information on active gang members.
 Eliminate gang violence.
Wichita’s Encounter
with Street Gangs
 Began in 1989.
 Gang members from California, Chicago, and Oklahoma came
to Wichita to set up shop to sell crack cocaine.
 Turf wars erupted.
 Officers began seeing shootings with high caliber,
assault style weapons such as the SKS, AK-47, Tec-9,
and the Mac-10.
 The “drive-by” Shooting became the attack of choice.
Criminal Street
Gang Act of 2006
 K.S.A 21-4226
 Defines a criminal street gang, members, associates, activity, and
a gang related incident.
 Makes it illegal to use intimidation to keep a member or to recruit
new members and defines conditions to be in violation.
 Requires a minimum $50,000 cash bond on new felony
charges for a documented gang member.
 W.P. D. Policy 527 – Gang/Targeted Offender Program
State of Kansas Definition
for a Criminal Street Gang
An ongoing organization, association or group of three (3) or
more persons, whether formal or informal, which meets
BOTH of the following criteria:
Has common name or identifying signs, colors or symbols;
Has members or associates who individually or collectively,
engage in or have engaged in the following criminal activity:
homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, arson, drive-by
shootings, kidnapping, burglary, auto theft, weapons
violations, intimidation; narcotic and drug law violations;
prostitution, simple assault and battery, vandalism, bias or
hate crimes.
State of Kansas Definition
for a Street Gang Member
Admits to criminal street gang membership.
Meets three (3) or more of the following criteria:
Identified as a criminal street gang member by a parent or legal
Identified as a criminal street gang member by a state, county, or
city law enforcement officer, or correctional officer, or documented
reliable informant;
Identified as a criminal street gang member by an informant of
previously untested reliability and such identification is corroborated
by independent information;
Resides in or frequents a particular criminal street gang’s area and
adopts such gang’s style of dress, color, use of hand signs, or
tattoos and associates with known criminal street gang members;
State of Kansas Definition
for a Street Gang Member
Has been arrested more than once in the company of identified
criminal street gang members for offenses, which are consistent
with usual criminal street gang activity;
Is identified as a criminal street gang member by physical
evidence including, but not limited to, photographs, or other
Has been stopped in the company of known criminal street gang
members two or more times;
Has participated in or undergone activities self-identified or
identified by a reliable informant as a criminal street gang
initiation ritual.
State of Kansas Definition
of a Criminal Street Gang
 Admits to criminal street gang
 Meets at least two (2) defining criteria for
criminal street gang membership.
W.P.D. Gang Member
Active: Documented as a gang member thru the K.S.A
criteria, and continues to be involved in gang activity or gang crimes.
Associate: A member that meets the K.S.A 21-4226 associate criteria.
Incarcerated: A gang member that is in the custody of the Federal,
State, or local prison system. This will include any probation or parole.
Deceased: A gang member that has died for any reason.
Deported: A gang member that has been deported out of the United
States by I.C.E..
Inactive: A gang member that has not been arrested for gang crimes or
involved in gang activity for the past three years since the original
identification date.
Why Individuals Join
 Self preservation / safety/protection
 A sense of belonging / friendship/family
 The excitement of gang activity / status
 Peer pressure
 Lack of realization of the hazards involved / curiosity
 Economic reasons
 Tradition
At Risk Characteristics for
Joining a Street Gang
Male gender; brought up to identify strictly with rigid masculine behavior
(males outnumber females 20-1)
Family member, friend, boyfriend or girlfriend are members; parents have
disregard for obeying laws
Alcohol and drugs frequently used in home
Living with a single parent or grandparents; breakdown of the traditional
family unit
Poor academic performance records / lack of education
Having poor to nonexistent job prospects, lack of opportunity,
unemployment, underemployment / need for money
Fighting and aggression in early adolescence, chronic delinquency problems
At Risk Characteristics for
Joining a Street Gang
 Lack of community involvement, socially isolated from neighbors
and peers, or parental rejection
 Basic needs that have been neglected or are unable to be filled
(love, affection, praise, and encouragement) / low self-esteem
 Marital discord
 Abuse that creates a cycle of violence
 Need for protection; survival; surrogate family
 Poor living conditions
Gang Membership
Doesn’t Just Happen:
 It develops gradually
 Watch for warning signs
 Get involved
 Young people cry out for help in different ways
 running away
 drug use
 sexually promiscuous
 attempting suicide
Recruiting Locations
 Schools – #1 location for recruiting
 Neighborhoods
 Churches
 Teen night clubs
 Athletic events
 Hang out spots
 Prisons / Detention Facilities
Joining a Street Gang
 Jumped in: Prospective member is beaten by several other
members for a set amount of time.
 Blessed in: Prospective member is accepted to the gang because
of a relative who is already in the gang.
 Commit a crime: Usually a felony which is witnessed by a fellow
 Sexed in: Usually conducted for females, a member must have
sex with several other members
Wichita Police Department
Gang Plan
 Gangs receive their power through two
Wichita Street Gang
Statistics I
 Sixty-two (62) Gang Sets
 2,896 Documented Gang Members
 1, 717 Active Gang Members
 772 Associate Gang Members
 367 Incarcerated Gang Members
 Seventy one (71) Deceased Gang Members
Wichita Street Gang
Statistics II
 Age of Street Gang Members
 20.6 is the average age of Active and Associate street gang
members in Wichita.
 Under 18 years of age: 491
 18 years of age and older: 2999*
 *All Documented Gang Members / Associates / Inactive /
Deceased / Incarcerated
Wichita Street Gang
Statistics III
Gang Members by Race*
African-American: 1650
Hispanic: 925
White: 296
Asian: 96
Indian: 9
Other: 4
*Active, Associate, Incarcerated, & Deceased
Wichita Street
Gang Statistics IV (4215 Total)
Gang incidents by day2008
Gang incidents by month2008
Wichita Street Gang
Statistics V
Gang members arrested: 791
Guns seized: 140
Suspects charged: 226
Total counts charged: 424
Federal cases charged: 12
T.O.P.’s revocations: 45
Gang Unit call-outs: 18
Community Gang Presentations: 43
Gang Involved Homicides: 15
Agg. Assault w/ Firearm: 62
Drive-By Shootings: 31
Wichita Street Gangs
Folk NAtion
People nation
Wichita Street Gangs
African American Gangs
Neighborhood Crips
Deuce Trey Crips
19th St. Grove Blocc
17th St. Grove Blocc
Rollin 90’s, 60’s, 40’s, 20’s
Insane Crip Gangsters
357 Clown Crips
Hoover 107
Black Gangster Disciples
Gangster Disciples
19th St. Tru Boys
Latin Kings
Original Wichita Villain Blood
Piru Bloods
Bounty Hunter Bloods
Inglewood Family Gangster Bloods – 77,
54, 113
Linc oln Park Bloods
79th St. Swans
21st St. Junior Boys
Ash park Gangsters
Second Streeters
Hill Bloc
Lost Boy Gangsters / Two Thirds
Wabash Gangsters
Hispanic Gangs
Vato Loco Boys
Spanish Disciples
Junior Loco Boys
Northside Gangsters
Players for Life
Kings of Destruction
Jackson Street Gangsters
Playboy Locos
Latin Kings
White Gangs
 River City Skinheads
 Eight Ball King Crips
 Aryan Brotherhood
 Bloods
 White Supremacists
 Gangster Disciples
 Ku Klux Klan
 Insane Crip Gangsters
 Insane Clown Posse
 2nd Streeters
 Eastside Gangsters
 Crips
Wichita Street Gangs
Asian Gangs
 Viet Boyz
 Asian Boyz
 Buc Lao Killers
 Dead Everlasting
 Oaklawn Boys
 Young Oriental
 Oriental Boy Soldiers
 Oriental Troop Soldiers
 Kai Bang
Wichita Street Gangs
New Wichita Street Gangs
Loc Young Gangsters – 357 Crips
Puro Cholo Locos – VLB’s
Meadow Creek Gangsters – PFL’s
Lil Legends – VLB’s
South Side Lokotes – Sur 13
Jackson Street Gangsters – VLB’s
Ace Ball Gangsters – Folks
Young Hunters – Bounty Hunter Bloods
Top Notch Gangsters – Junior Boys
12th Street Gangsters
54 Family Bloods – IFGB
77 Family Bloods – IFGB
113 Family Bloods - IFGB
Street Gang Lifestyle
Hand Signs
Gang Colors / Clothing
Family & Gangs
Females and Street Gangs
Wichita street gangs in Prison
Wichita Street
Gang Tattoos
 Tattoos identify
members by gangs
and their sets.
 Often permanent and
denotes loyalty to the
 Extremely popular in
today’s culture.
Wichita Street
Gang Tattoos
Wichita Street
Gang Graffiti
 Case #07C517423
 Is this gang graffiti?
 If so, can you identify what
 It is VLB / Spanish Disciple
gang graffiti. Notice the
pitchfork is up, the “13” is
crossed out, and it is in
black paint.
Wichita Street
Gang Graffiti
Vato Loco Boys
Wichita Street
Gang Graffiti
Vato Loco Boys vs. Sur 13’s
Wichita Street
Gang Graffiti
Sur 13 ‘s
Wichita Street
Gang Graffiti
Wichita Street
Gang Graffiti
North Side Gangsters
Wichita Street
Gang Graffiti
Vato Loco Boys
Wichita Street Gangs
and Females
 Female Street Gang Members
 Active : 62
 Associate : 48
 Incarcerated: 3
 Deceased: 1
Wichita Police Department
Gang Plan
 The Wichita Police Department
addresses gangs through three ways:
 Prevention
 Intervention
 Suppression
Wichita Police Department
Gang Plan
 Enforcement
 Community Policing
 Environmental / Fire / Housing Codes
 S.C.A.T. (Special Community Action Team)
 T.O.P. (Targeted Offender Program)
 Parole and Probation
 Gang Unit
 Intelligence
 Prosecution
 Municipal
 State
 Federal - (R.I.C.O.) Racketeer Influenced and
Corrupt Organizations Act
11. What methods do you think should
be used to keep young people out of
 Opinion
12. Using the picture on page 179,
how might deviant acts like
spraying graffiti unify groups?
Such acts can unite neighbors and
communities in an effort to prevent the
acts or to catch those responsible.
13. Using the comic on page 179,
how does this comic capture the
ways in which interpretation of an
event can vary between groups?
It shows how actions considered normal
by one group can be considered deviant
by another.
14. What is the major functionalist
explanation of deviance? Who
developed this theory? Briefly explain
this theory.
The major functionalist explanation of deviance is the strain theory
developed by Robert K. Merton.
Strain theory views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values,
norms, and structure of society.
According to Merton, American society places a high value on certain goals,
such as economic success (money).
Anomie is the situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear,
thus leaving individuals without sufficient guidelines for behavior.
This concept was originally proposed by Emile Durkheim to explain
high rates of suicide in countries undergoing industrialization.
However, not everyone in society has access to the legitimate means to
achieve these goals.
Maybe they have been prevented from getting a job because of social
conditions. (lack of education)
Merton suggested that individuals respond to the culturally approved goals
and the legitimate means of achieving these goals in five ways.
Functionalist Perspective--Strain theory
Many individuals in a society accept both the culturally approved goals and the means for
achieving these goals.
People who use innovation accept the cultural goals of their society but do not accept the
approved means for reaching these goals.
 Criminals such as drug dealers and burglars fit into this category.
Ritualists also find it impossible to achieve cultural goals by acceptable means.
 Instead of violating the norms for achievement, they abandon the goals while
continuing to observe the expected rules of behavior.
For example a worker may pass up opportunities for advancement rather than
face possible failure.
Retreatists reject both the cultural goals and the socially acceptable means of attaining
 Unlike innovators and ritualists, they make no effort to appear to share their society’s
goals and norms.
Examples of retreatists may include drug addicts, beggars, and the homeless.
Rebels want to substitute a new set of goals and means for the currently approved set.
 Members of any revolutionary movement or terrorist organization fall into this category
of deviant adaptation.
15. Using the picture on page 180,
how do you think this group of
sailors has adapted the response of
• They have all conformed to naval
standards of dress and behavior.
16. What do conflict theorists
believe? Who is Richard Quinney?
Conflict theorists believe that competition and social inequality lead to deviance.
 They see social life as a struggle between those who possess power—the ruling
class—and those who do not—the lower class.
People with power commit deviant acts in an effort to maintain their position.
 Bribing a U.S. Senator to pass a tax bill that they benefit from.
People without power, on the other hand, commit deviant acts for one of two reasons.
 They turn to deviance either to obtain economic rewards or because they have low
self-esteem and feelings of powerlessness.
► Begging for money or protesting at a rally of some kind.
According to conflict theorist Richard Quinney, the ruling classes label any behavior
that threatens their power base as deviant.
 Higher taxes for the rich.
Because the lower classes have only limited opportunities in life, they are often forced to
commit acts defined as deviant.
 Dealing drugs, etc.
To protect their power, the ruling classes then establish ideologies—belief systems—that
explain deviance as a problem found primarily among the lower classes.
Thus, law enforcement efforts are most often directed toward the types of crimes committed by the lower
As a result, these groups have higher rates of arrest and conviction.
17. Using the pictures on
page 181, why do you think
these groups are committing
deviant acts?
 Opinion
18. What are the three major
explanations for deviance given by
interactionists? Briefly describe each
one and the theorists behind each.
Control theory
 Explains deviance as a natural occurrence.
 The focus of control theory is somewhat different.
 Control theorists are interested in why people conform rather than the causes of
 Social ties among individuals, control theorists propose, determine conformity.
 Control theorists suggest that individuals who are integrated into the community
are likely to conform.
 Conversely, those who have weak ties to the community are likely to commit
deviant acts.
 According to Travis Hirschi, a leading control theorist, people develop strong
social bonds in four ways.
 First, they form attachments with others—parents, teachers, and friends—
who accept the norms of society.
 Second, they have a strong belief in the moral codes of society, accepting
that some behavior is simply wrong.
 Third, they show commitment to traditional societal values and goals, such
as getting a good education or job.
 Finally, they are fully involved in non-deviant activities—leaving no time for
deviant behavior.
Cultural transmission theory
This theory explains deviance as a learned behavior.
Deviant behavior is learned in much the same way that nondeviant
behavior is learned—through interaction with others.
However, in the case of deviant behavior, the interaction is primarily
among individuals who are engaging in deviant acts.
The concept of differential association is at the heart of the
cultural transmission theory.
This concept was first proposed by American sociologist and
criminologist Edwin Sutherland.
This concept refers to the frequency and closeness of associations a
person has with deviant and non-deviant individuals.
If the majority of a person’s interactions are with deviant individuals,
the person is likely to be socialized into patterns of deviant behavior.
On the other hand, if the person’s associations are primarily with
individuals who conform to society’s norms, that person is more likely to
Labeling theory
Instead of focusing on why people perform deviant acts, labeling theory
focuses on how individuals come to be identified as deviant.
 Labeling theory is heavily influenced by the work of sociologists Edwin
Lemert and Howard Becker.
 Labeling theorists note that all people commit deviant acts during their
These acts range from the minor to the serious, yet not everyone is labeled as deviant.
Labeling theorists suggest this due to deviance consists of two parts:
Primary deviance is nonconformity that goes undetected by those in authority.
Secondary deviance, on the other hand, results in the individual being labeled as
deviant and accepting the label as true.
The process of labeling an individual as deviant is usually accompanied by what
sociologist Harold Garfinkel called a degradation ceremony.
In some kind of public setting—such as a trial—the individual is denounced, found guilty, and
given the new identity of deviant.
In many instances the label of deviant restricts an individual’s options in the larger society and
forces him or her into a deviant life style.
 The label of deviant is a self-fulfilling prophecy with people being treated as deviant and
being encouraged to commit other deviant acts.
19. Using the picture on
page 182, how do you
think these communities
might encourage
• By using family and community
pressure to make people
conform and by ostracizing
those who do not.
20. Using the picture on page 184,
how do you these public hearings
and the labeling affected the lives of
those accused?
• Many of the people labeled as communists
experienced discrimination, such as losing their
jobs and social standing.
Chapter 8
Lecture Questions
Section 2 (pages 187-197)
1. What is a crime? What is a
moral code?
A crime is any act that is labeled as such by those in
authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the
For example, a person who robs a bank—an act that is
labeled criminal, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by
the government—has committed a crime.
On the other hand, a champion swimmer who stands by
and watches a friend drown instead of attempting a
rescue has not necessarily committed a crime.
The swimmer may have violated a moral code but not
necessarily a law.
A moral code is an internal rule of conduct based on one’s
value system.
2. Using the chart on page 187, how
much lower was the percentage of
people age 45-54 arrested than of
those age 35 to 44? What factors
contributed to this difference?
12.1 percent difference
Younger people tend to commit more crimes.
3. Who publishes the Uniform
Crime Report (UCR)? Where do
they get their information on crime
 The
UCR is published by the FBI (Federal
Bureau of Investigation).
 The UCR is one of the major sources of
information concerning crime in the U.S.
 The FBI uses data provided by local police
departments to compile nationwide
Did You Know
 Of the cities with populations of 500,000 or
more. (2009)
Most dangerous (highest crime rate)
 Detroit, Michigan
 Baltimore, Maryland
 Memphis, Tennessee
 Washington, DC
 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Safest (lowest crime rate)
 San Jose, California
 Honululu, Hawaii
 El Paso, Texas
 New York, New York
 Austin, Texas
4. What factors limit the filing of
formal crime reports according to
sociologist Donald Black?
Crime statistics have certain limitations.
Sociologist Donald Black identified the following characteristics that
limit the filing of formal crime reports.
– Not all of the complaints that citizens make to the police find their way
into the official statistics.
– The responding officer decides whether or not to file a formal report.
– Officers are more likely to file reports in the cases of serious offenses.
– Individuals are less likely to report a crime if family or friends are
– The police are more likely to file formal reports on serious crimes when
the injured parties are members of the higher social classes.
– Whether an officer files a formal complaint is influenced by the attitude
of the individual making the complaint.
– An officer is more likely to file a formal complaint when the person
making the complaint shows courtesy and respect toward the officer.
– Crime figures can also be affected by changes in the way that statistics
are reported or by incorrect reporting.
5. What types of crimes are more
likely to go unreported by the
 Certain types of crime—such as sexual
assault—are more likely to go unreported
by the victims.
 Other types of crimes with low reporting
include child abuse and spousal abuse.
6. Using the table on page 188, what are the
most serious types of crime? Give five
examples. What are the less serious types of
crime? Give five examples.
• Part I offenses (felonies)
• Murder
• Robbery
• Arson
• Aggravated assault
• Forcible Rape
• Part II offenses (misdemeanors)
• Fraud
• Embezzlement
• Vandalism
• Drug Abuse Violations (except narcotics)
• Gambling
7. Using the chart on page 189,
what is the difference in the
percentage of total arrests for
murder compared to larceny?
Which offense was the highest of
the Part I Offenses? Which offense
was the highest of the Part II
• The difference is 8.68%.
• Larceny (8.8%)
• Other offenses (except traffic) (27%)
8. What are the four types of violent crimes? How often
does each occur? What is the relationship between violent
crime and African Americans? What is the relationship
between guns and violent crime.
Violent crimes—murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated
assault—make up a very small percentage of all crimes committed.
According to UCR statistics, a violent crime occurs every 22 seconds in
the U.S.
 Aggravated assault—every 35 seconds
 Robbery—every 78 seconds
 Forcible rape—every 5 minutes 48 seconds
 Murder—every 33 minutes 54 seconds
Most victims of violence are African American.
Guns are used in about 65 percent of all murders, with handguns being
the weapon used in about 51 percent of the cases.
 Another 13 percent of murder are committed with knives.
Crime in Wichita
Crime in Wichita was down in six of the seven crime
categories in 2010, with burglaries showing the only
increase from 2009.
Crime Reports Change from 2009
Violent Crime
Murder 16 (-36%)
Rape 246 (-3.1%)
Robbery 48 -8.7%
Aggravated assault 2,283 (6.4%)
Property Crime
 Burglary 4,2414 (+.8%)
 Theft 12,472 (10.2%)
 Auto theft 1,528 (8.3%)
9. Using the graph on page 190, what
general trend did each of these
categories of violent crime experience
in the late 1990s?
Violent crime experienced a general
decrease in its rate in the late
10. Using the visual on page
190, how can neighborhood
involvement help decrease
 Neighborhood involvement helps to
decrease crime by helping spot
suspicious strangers and knowing when
houses are empty.
11. Using the case study on page
191, how does domestic terrorism
differ from international terrorism?
What do you think is the best way
to combat terrorism? Explain your
Domestic terrorism involves actions taken by individual
terrorists or terrorist groups based and operating in the
International terrorism involves acts committed by groups or
individuals based outside the U.S. or directed by organizations
outside the U.S.
Forming the Office of Homeland Security.
Increasing security procedures at airports.
Tracking people suspected of having terrorist ties.
Did You Know
The word terrorism dates back to a period
of the French Revolution known as the
Reign of Terror (1793-94).
During this period, a group of rebels who
had gained power used terror and violence
against anyone suspected of being an
enemy of the revolution.
During the Reign of Terror, some 300,000
people were arrested, and some 17,000
were executed.
12. What are the four types of
crimes against property? How often
is this type of crime committed in
the U.S.?
 Burglary
 Larceny
(other than auto)
 Motor vehicle theft
 Arson
A crime against property occurs every 3
13. How do sociologists explain
variations in crime rates? What
else happened in the 1980s
and 1990s that caused the
crime rate to escalate slightly?
Sociologists generally tie variations in the crime rate to
changes in the population.
 People under the age of 25 commit a large
percentage of crimes.
• As the size of this segment of the population changes,
the crime rate varies in the same direction.
In the 1980s and 1990s increases in the crime rate
appeared to be partially the result of illegal drug use.
 Expensive drug habits are often financed through
• In addition, many serious crimes are committed while
people are under the influence of drugs.
Killer Summers
 Based on a study of crime in the U.S. from 1950 to
1995, more violent crimes occurred during the
summer months than during other seasons.
 Laboratory experiments have also shown a direct link
between hot temperatures and aggressive thought
and behavior.
 Sociologist Jack Levin suggests another reason,
however, for higher summer crime rates.
 Levin states that during summer, people tend more
often to congregate in large groups.
 More gatherings provide a greater chance for
arguments to occur and for more potential victims to
be located in one place.
14. Using the graph on page 192,
what was the difference in the rates
of larceny and burglary in 1998?
The difference in the rates of larceny and
burglary was about 1800 cases per
100,000 population.
15. What are victimless crimes?
Give examples of this type of
Such offenses are termed victimless because
they supposedly harm no one but the person
committing the act.
This classification may be somewhat
misleading in some of these crimes, however.
While people other than the offenders may not
suffer directly, the consequences for society of
crimes such as drug abuse can be significant.
These crimes include: prostitution, illegal
gambling, illegal drug use, and vagrancy.
16. Who coined the term white-collar crime? Who
commits these types of crimes? Give examples of
this type of crime. How much does this type of
crime cost the U.S. every year?
 Edwin Sutherland coined the term white-collar crime to describe
offenses committed by individuals of high social status in the course
of their professional lives.
 Politicians, employees of corporations, and corporations themselves
sometimes commit crimes of this type.
 Bernie Madoff – ponzi scheme ($50 billion)
 Martha Stewart – insider trading
 Misrepresentation, fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement, price fixing,
toxic pollution, insider trading, and political corruption are examples
of white-collar crime.
 Conservative estimates suggest that white-collar crimes cost the U.S. more than
$300 billion each year.
17. What is a crime syndicate? What
types of crime are they involved with?
A crime syndicate is a large-scale organization of professional criminals
that controls some vice or business through violence or the threat of
These organizations pursue crime as a big business.
Such syndicates operate in many areas of business, many of them legal.
They often use legitimate businesses as “fronts” for their criminal
This enables the syndicates to reinvest their money through legal
By using such methods as drug trafficking, illegal gambling, prostitution,
unfair labor practices, hijacking of merchandise, and loan sharking—
lending money at very high interest rates—organized crime syndicates
make huge profits.
Racketeering includes: bribery to officials, theft, extortion, money laundering, and
even counterfeiting.
Organized crime tree
Mafia terms
Made-man—full fledged member
Associate—one who works with mobsters
La Cosa Nostra—mob term for family or mafia
Rat—informant to the FBI
Whack—kill or murder someone
Capo—family member who leads a crew
Code of silence—don’t rat out anyone
Witness protection—testify and hide
RICO—Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act
Pinched—to get caught by the cops or Feds
Shakedown—to get money from someone
Wiseguy—a made guy
Underboss—the second in command
Don—head of the crime family
Prohibition and
Organized Crime
• In 1920 the Eighteenth Amendment banned
the sale, manufacture, and transportation
of alcoholic beverages in the U.S.
• Called prohibition, this ban led to the
growth of organized crime through the
smuggling and selling of alcohol.
• As millions of dollars shifted from legal
businesses to criminal organizations,
crime became big business.
• After the Twenty-first Amendment repealed
prohibition in 1933, organized crime
“families” turned to other criminal
18. What makes up the criminal-justice
 Have the most control over who is arrested for crimes.
 Use police discretion, which has raised the controversial issue of racial
District Attorney—
 Decides if charges should be filed.
 Determines the accused’s guilt or innocence in a court trial and then
assigns a punishment.
 Actually settles 90 percent of cases through plea bargaining.
 Includes probation, imprisonment and parole.
Juvenile-justice system—
 Applies to offenders younger than 18.
 Guarantees juvenile defendant’s the same legal rights and privileges as
 Often provides more services.
19. What is police discretion? Why is this
used? What factors are considered by a police
officer before making an arrest? What is racial
Police have considerable power to decide who is actually arrested.
Reasons for police discretion are:
 The size of the U.S. population
Population of US is over 300 million.
 The number of criminal offenses.
 The number of full-time police officers.
The number of officers is around 1 million.
Research has indicated that several factors are considered by a police officer when deciding
whether to make an arrest.
 First, the seriousness of the offense is considered.
Less serious offenses are more likely to be ignored.
 Second, the wishes of the victim are taken into consideration.
If the offense is serious or if the suspect is a male, victims generally press for an
 Third, the attitude of the suspect is considered.
An uncooperative suspect is more likely to be arrested than one who is polite or
 Fourth, if bystanders are present, the police are more likely to make an arrest.
In doing so, the police reinforce the point that they are in control of the situation.
Racial profiling—is the practice of assuming that nonwhite Americans are more likely to
commit crime than white Americans.
 This issue of racial profiling has become an important political issue, particularly in the
aftermath of the terrorist attacks on America in September 2001.
20. Using the graph on page 194, how
much did the prison population increase
between 1995 and 2000?
 The prison population increased some 233,
000 between 1995 and 2000.
 The total number of people behind bars in
the U.S. is now well over 2 million.
Kansas Prisons
El Dorado
Holds approximately 1178 inmates
Maximum/medium custody
Death row located here
Holds approximately 550 inmates
Medium/minimum custody
2nd oldest Kansas prison
Formerly called Kansas State Industrial Reformatory
Oldest and largest prison in Kansas (1868)
Holds approximately 2335 inmates
Death Penalty would be carried out here
Houses the most severely mentally ill inmates
Larned State Mental Hospital grounds
Norton & Stockton
Holds approximately 700 inmates
Minimum and medium custody
Women’s facility
Wichita Work Release
250 minimum custody inmates
Holds approximately 550 minimum custody inmates
21. What is the courts’ role in the
criminal-justice system?
Once a person is arrested, the
responsibility shifts to the courts.
The courts’ role is a two-fold process.
• First, a court determines the guilt or innocence
of an accused person by means of a trial.
• Second, if there is a guilty finding, the court
assigns some form of punishment.
In reality, however, more than 90 percent
of all criminal cases are settled through
plea bargaining before going to trial.
22. What is plea bargaining? What
percent of cases are settled this way?
Why is it used?
Plea bargaining is the process of legal
negotiation that allows an accused person
to plead guilty to a lesser charge in return
for a lighter sentence.
 This process allows courts to reduce their
huge volume of caseloads while avoiding
many expensive and time-consuming jury
23. What does a criminologist do?
 Criminologists investigate the causes of crime
and methods of crime prevention.
 Criminologists have many career options in
the criminal-justice system.
Consultants to police departments.
Administrative positions in the courts.
Parole and probation officers.
Counselors in substance-abuse and rehabilitation
Work in the corrections system, assessing
problems and setting policies.
The Science of Criminology
Criminology emerged in Italy during the 1700s.
The publication of On Crimes and Punishments by Italian
Cesare Bonesana helped found the classical school of
This school protested the harsh punishments in place at the
Its members held that punishment should serve only to prevent
future crime and that everyone convicted of the same crime
should receive the same punishment, regardless of status.
These beliefs provide the foundation for many of the principles
in modern U.S. criminal law.
24. What sanctions are used
in our criminal-justice system?
Sent to a prison for a specific sentence.
Spent time in a prison, but are released
with certain rules to follow and must
report to a parole officer.
Instead of going to prison, one agrees to
follow certain rules and report to a
probation officer.
25. What four basic functions
do corrections serve?
The punishing of a criminal serves as an act of revenge for the
victim and society.
Corrections are intended to discourage offenders from committing
future crimes.
 Also, to make the rest of society think twice before breaking
During the 1800s, prisons emerged as places in which to reform
criminals so that they could return to society as law-abiding
Social protection—
By limiting the freedom of offenders, society prevents them from
committing additional crimes.
 In the case of the death penalty, the threat of an offender
committing future criminal acts is eliminated.
26. What is recidivism? Why is it
Recidivism is the term for repeated
criminal behavior.
According to a U.S. Department of Justice
study, 62 % of released prisoners will be
charged with new crimes and 41 % will
return to prison with three years of
High recidivism rates mean corrections
does not work.
27. What types of
punishments can the courts
 Imprisonment
 Fines
 Probation
 The majority of convicted criminals are
punished through fines and probation.
28. Using the map on page 196, what
state had the highest rate of
imprisonment? What rate did most
states have?
A rate of 300 to 499 per 100,000
29. How are juveniles treated in
our criminal-justice system?
The third largest category of criminals in the U.S. consists of
juvenile offenders—offenders younger than 18.
Until the 1960s, juveniles charged with crimes had few rights and
were not protected by the same legal safeguards provided for adult
Laws that pertain to adult offenders refer to well-defined offenses,
carry specific punishments, and apply more or less equally to all
However, the laws for juvenile offenses were much less specific.
The courts now must guarantee juvenile defendants the same legal
rights and privileges as adult defendants.
At the same time, juvenile delinquents are still regarded as a special
kind of offender.
Juvenile courts try, in principle at least, to provide many more
services for offenders than do adult criminal courts.
Yet, in some areas of the country, juveniles—even very young
suspects—can be tried as adults for certain serious offenses, such as
30. Using the visual on page 197, how
might gaining an education help
rehabilitate convicted criminals?
 Learning a trade might give released
prisoners more job options and thereby an
increased chance of not committing future