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Sociology Chapter 8 Lecture Questions Section 1 (pages 176-185) Revised November 2012 1. What is deviance? Are all norm violations considered deviant acts? Behavior that violates significant social norms is called deviance. There are always individuals who break the rules of their society or the group. Every society has countless norms that govern behavior. – – Thus, many norms governing behavior, are unavoidably broken. Not all norm violations are considered deviant acts. 2. Give an example of how an act is considered deviant in one situation and not in another. • To kill someone is generally illegal. • However, not every situation is that way. • Military• kill someone while in combat. • Police• kill someone in the line of duty. • Self-defense• kill someone who is trying to harm you. 3. Give an example of how an act is considered deviant in one society and not in another. Divorce is legal in the U.S. It is prohibited in the Philippines. It is also prohibited by the Amish. 4. Give an example of how an act is considered deviant in one period of time and not in another. Drug use in the U.S. Legal until 1914, illegal after that. (Harrison Narcotics Act) Alcohol use in the U.S. Illegal from 19201933. (Prohibition) Throughout most of the 1900s it was illegal for stores to do business on Sunday. (Blue Laws) Today, most stores are open some on Sunday. 5. How do people come to be considered deviant? • Suppose a person gets a speeding ticket. – That person would not be considered deviant on the basis of the one event. • However, if that person was continually caught driving at high speeds, such reckless behavior would be considered deviant. – Repeating an offense is not the only way a person comes to be labeled as a deviant. • A person who commits an act that has serious negative consequences for society—such as murder, sexual assault, or robbery—is likely to be labeled as deviant because of his or her single act. – OJ Simpson 6. Using the picture on page 176, why do you think American businesspersons consider tattoos deviant? Because some business people prefer employees to have a professional, conservative appearance and manner. They also consider tattoos to be a sign of rebellious youthful behavior. 7. What two components are required for someone to be labeled as deviant? What is a stigma? Give an example of a stigma, not in the book. To be considered deviant by society, an individual must first be detected committing a deviant act. A person will not be labeled as deviant unless his or her deviant behavior is in some way known to other people. Next, the individual must be stigmatized by society. A stigma is a mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society. Stigmas have been used as a form of social control throughout history. For example, the ancient Greeks cut or burned signs into the bodies of criminals to warn others that these deviants were to be avoided. Some people have suggested that the cars of people convicted of driving while drunk should be marked in some way, such as a decal. Today, sex offenders in most states must register whenever they move. You can find their name and picture on the internet. 8. List the five social functions of deviance and briefly explain each. Also, give an example of each. Clarifying norms Deviance serves to define the boundaries of acceptable behavior. Unifying the group Deviance also serves to draw the line between conforming members of society and “outsiders”—the nonconforming members. Minor acts of deviance serve as a safety valve when people feel their lives or social conditions aren’t good. For example, participating in unauthorized demonstrations allows people to express political or social discontent. Promoting social change Deviance can help prompt social change by identifying problem areas. This “us against them” attitude reinforces the sense of community and the belief in shared values. Diffusing tension The punishment of norm violators serves as a warning to others that certain behaviors will not be tolerated by society. Looking at crime statistics and correcting the situation. Providing jobs Deviance also provides legitimate jobs for a wide range of people. Judges, lawyers, police officers, prison personnel, and parole officers have jobs related to one aspect of deviance—crime. 9. Using the picture on page 177, what visual signs act as stigmas of deviance for homeless persons? Many people avoid looking at, talking to, or walking near homeless people. 10. Using the case study on page 178, why do young people join gangs? Young people join gangs for many reasons. Gain friendship. Protection. Sense of family. Economic support. Wichita Street Gang Awareness 1 Lieutenant 1 Night Lieutenant 10 Detectives 2 Night Detectives 4 Gang Intelligence Officers Vision of the W.P.D. Gang Unit To focus on crimes committed by gang members. With the intent to identify and formulate and viable charges. Assemble and disseminate intelligence information on active gang members. Eliminate gang violence. Wichita’s Encounter with Street Gangs Began in 1989. Gang members from California, Chicago, and Oklahoma came to Wichita to set up shop to sell crack cocaine. Turf wars erupted. Officers began seeing shootings with high caliber, assault style weapons such as the SKS, AK-47, Tec-9, and the Mac-10. The “drive-by” Shooting became the attack of choice. Criminal Street Gang Act of 2006 K.S.A 21-4226 Defines a criminal street gang, members, associates, activity, and a gang related incident. Makes it illegal to use intimidation to keep a member or to recruit new members and defines conditions to be in violation. Requires a minimum $50,000 cash bond on new felony charges for a documented gang member. W.P. D. Policy 527 – Gang/Targeted Offender Program State of Kansas Definition for a Criminal Street Gang An ongoing organization, association or group of three (3) or more persons, whether formal or informal, which meets BOTH of the following criteria: 1. Has common name or identifying signs, colors or symbols; 2. Has members or associates who individually or collectively, engage in or have engaged in the following criminal activity: homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, arson, drive-by shootings, kidnapping, burglary, auto theft, weapons violations, intimidation; narcotic and drug law violations; prostitution, simple assault and battery, vandalism, bias or hate crimes. State of Kansas Definition for a Street Gang Member A. Admits to criminal street gang membership. Meets three (3) or more of the following criteria: 1. 2. 3. 4. Identified as a criminal street gang member by a parent or legal guardian. Identified as a criminal street gang member by a state, county, or city law enforcement officer, or correctional officer, or documented reliable informant; Identified as a criminal street gang member by an informant of previously untested reliability and such identification is corroborated by independent information; Resides in or frequents a particular criminal street gang’s area and adopts such gang’s style of dress, color, use of hand signs, or tattoos and associates with known criminal street gang members; State of Kansas Definition for a Street Gang Member 5. Has been arrested more than once in the company of identified criminal street gang members for offenses, which are consistent with usual criminal street gang activity; 6. Is identified as a criminal street gang member by physical evidence including, but not limited to, photographs, or other documentation; 7. Has been stopped in the company of known criminal street gang members two or more times; 8. Has participated in or undergone activities self-identified or identified by a reliable informant as a criminal street gang initiation ritual. State of Kansas Definition of a Criminal Street Gang Associate Admits to criminal street gang association. Meets at least two (2) defining criteria for criminal street gang membership. W.P.D. Gang Member Status Active: Documented as a gang member thru the K.S.A 21-4226 criteria, and continues to be involved in gang activity or gang crimes. Associate: A member that meets the K.S.A 21-4226 associate criteria. Incarcerated: A gang member that is in the custody of the Federal, State, or local prison system. This will include any probation or parole. Deceased: A gang member that has died for any reason. Deported: A gang member that has been deported out of the United States by I.C.E.. Inactive: A gang member that has not been arrested for gang crimes or involved in gang activity for the past three years since the original identification date. Why Individuals Join Gangs Self preservation / safety/protection A sense of belonging / friendship/family The excitement of gang activity / status Peer pressure Lack of realization of the hazards involved / curiosity Economic reasons Tradition At Risk Characteristics for Joining a Street Gang Male gender; brought up to identify strictly with rigid masculine behavior (males outnumber females 20-1) Family member, friend, boyfriend or girlfriend are members; parents have disregard for obeying laws Alcohol and drugs frequently used in home Living with a single parent or grandparents; breakdown of the traditional family unit Poor academic performance records / lack of education Having poor to nonexistent job prospects, lack of opportunity, unemployment, underemployment / need for money Fighting and aggression in early adolescence, chronic delinquency problems At Risk Characteristics for Joining a Street Gang Lack of community involvement, socially isolated from neighbors and peers, or parental rejection Basic needs that have been neglected or are unable to be filled (love, affection, praise, and encouragement) / low self-esteem Marital discord Abuse that creates a cycle of violence Need for protection; survival; surrogate family Poor living conditions Gang Membership Doesn’t Just Happen: It develops gradually Watch for warning signs Get involved Young people cry out for help in different ways running away drug use sexually promiscuous attempting suicide Recruiting Locations Schools – #1 location for recruiting Neighborhoods Churches Teen night clubs Athletic events Hang out spots Prisons / Detention Facilities Joining a Street Gang Jumped in: Prospective member is beaten by several other members for a set amount of time. Blessed in: Prospective member is accepted to the gang because of a relative who is already in the gang. Commit a crime: Usually a felony which is witnessed by a fellow member. Sexed in: Usually conducted for females, a member must have sex with several other members Wichita Police Department Gang Plan Gangs receive their power through two ways: FEAR INTIMIDATION Wichita Street Gang Statistics I Sixty-two (62) Gang Sets 2,896 Documented Gang Members 1, 717 Active Gang Members 772 Associate Gang Members 367 Incarcerated Gang Members Seventy one (71) Deceased Gang Members Wichita Street Gang Statistics II Age of Street Gang Members 20.6 is the average age of Active and Associate street gang members in Wichita. Under 18 years of age: 491 18 years of age and older: 2999* *All Documented Gang Members / Associates / Inactive / Deceased / Incarcerated Wichita Street Gang Statistics III Gang Members by Race* African-American: 1650 Hispanic: 925 White: 296 Asian: 96 Indian: 9 Other: 4 *Active, Associate, Incarcerated, & Deceased Wichita Street Gang Statistics IV (4215 Total) Gang incidents by day2008 Gang incidents by month2008 Sunday 657 Monday 555 Tuesday 585 Wednsday 543 Thursday 552 Friday 622 Saturday 701 January February March April May June July August September October November December 256 292 365 373 421 400 368 385 387 330 343 295 Wichita Street Gang Statistics V Gang members arrested: 791 Guns seized: 140 Suspects charged: 226 Total counts charged: 424 Federal cases charged: 12 T.O.P.’s revocations: 45 Gang Unit call-outs: 18 Community Gang Presentations: 43 Gang Involved Homicides: 15 Agg. Assault w/ Firearm: 62 Drive-By Shootings: 31 Wichita Street Gangs Folk NAtion People nation Wichita Street Gangs African American Gangs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. CRIPS Neighborhood Crips Deuce Trey Crips 19th St. Grove Blocc 17th St. Grove Blocc Rollin 90’s, 60’s, 40’s, 20’s Insane Crip Gangsters 357 Clown Crips Hoover 107 1. 2. 3. FOLKS Black Gangster Disciples Gangster Disciples 19th St. Tru Boys 1. PEOPLE Latin Kings BLOODS 1. Original Wichita Villain Blood 2. Piru Bloods 3. Bounty Hunter Bloods 4. Inglewood Family Gangster Bloods – 77, 54, 113 5. Linc oln Park Bloods 6. 79th St. Swans 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. LOCAL 21st St. Junior Boys Ash park Gangsters Second Streeters Hill Bloc Lost Boy Gangsters / Two Thirds Wabash Gangsters Hispanic Gangs Vato Loco Boys Spanish Disciples Junior Loco Boys Northside Gangsters Players for Life Kings of Destruction Nortenos Surenos Jackson Street Gangsters MS-13 Playboy Locos Latin Kings White Gangs River City Skinheads Eight Ball King Crips Aryan Brotherhood Bloods White Supremacists Gangster Disciples Ku Klux Klan Insane Crip Gangsters Insane Clown Posse 2nd Streeters Eastside Gangsters Crips Wichita Street Gangs Asian Gangs Viet Boyz Asian Boyz Buc Lao Killers Dead Everlasting Gangsters Oaklawn Boys Young Oriental Gangsters Oriental Boy Soldiers Oriental Troop Soldiers Kai Bang Wichita Street Gangs New Wichita Street Gangs Loc Young Gangsters – 357 Crips Puro Cholo Locos – VLB’s Meadow Creek Gangsters – PFL’s Lil Legends – VLB’s South Side Lokotes – Sur 13 Jackson Street Gangsters – VLB’s Ace Ball Gangsters – Folks Young Hunters – Bounty Hunter Bloods Top Notch Gangsters – Junior Boys 12th Street Gangsters 54 Family Bloods – IFGB 77 Family Bloods – IFGB 113 Family Bloods - IFGB Street Gang Lifestyle Tattoos Hand Signs Gang Colors / Clothing Graffiti Music Misc. Weapons Funerals Family & Gangs Females and Street Gangs Wichita street gangs in Prison Wichita Street Gang Tattoos Tattoos identify members by gangs and their sets. Often permanent and denotes loyalty to the gang. Extremely popular in today’s culture. Wichita Street Gang Tattoos Wichita Street Gang Graffiti Case #07C517423 Is this gang graffiti? If so, can you identify what gang? It is VLB / Spanish Disciple gang graffiti. Notice the pitchfork is up, the “13” is crossed out, and it is in black paint. Wichita Street Gang Graffiti Vato Loco Boys Wichita Street Gang Graffiti Vato Loco Boys vs. Sur 13’s Wichita Street Gang Graffiti Sur 13 ‘s Wichita Street Gang Graffiti Wichita Street Gang Graffiti North Side Gangsters Wichita Street Gang Graffiti Vato Loco Boys Wichita Street Gangs and Females Female Street Gang Members Active : 62 Associate : 48 Incarcerated: 3 Deceased: 1 Wichita Police Department Gang Plan The Wichita Police Department addresses gangs through three ways: Prevention Intervention Suppression Wichita Police Department Gang Plan SUPPRESSION Enforcement Community Policing Environmental / Fire / Housing Codes S.C.A.T. (Special Community Action Team) T.O.P. (Targeted Offender Program) Parole and Probation Gang Unit Intelligence Prosecution Municipal State Federal - (R.I.C.O.) Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act 11. What methods do you think should be used to keep young people out of gangs? Opinion 12. Using the picture on page 179, how might deviant acts like spraying graffiti unify groups? Such acts can unite neighbors and communities in an effort to prevent the acts or to catch those responsible. 13. Using the comic on page 179, how does this comic capture the ways in which interpretation of an event can vary between groups? It shows how actions considered normal by one group can be considered deviant by another. 14. What is the major functionalist explanation of deviance? Who developed this theory? Briefly explain this theory. The major functionalist explanation of deviance is the strain theory developed by Robert K. Merton. Strain theory views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society. According to Merton, American society places a high value on certain goals, such as economic success (money). Anomie is the situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear, thus leaving individuals without sufficient guidelines for behavior. This concept was originally proposed by Emile Durkheim to explain high rates of suicide in countries undergoing industrialization. However, not everyone in society has access to the legitimate means to achieve these goals. Maybe they have been prevented from getting a job because of social conditions. (lack of education) Merton suggested that individuals respond to the culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving these goals in five ways. Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism Rebellion Functionalist Perspective--Strain theory Conformity- Many individuals in a society accept both the culturally approved goals and the means for achieving these goals. Innovation- People who use innovation accept the cultural goals of their society but do not accept the approved means for reaching these goals. Criminals such as drug dealers and burglars fit into this category. Ritualism- Ritualists also find it impossible to achieve cultural goals by acceptable means. Instead of violating the norms for achievement, they abandon the goals while continuing to observe the expected rules of behavior. For example a worker may pass up opportunities for advancement rather than face possible failure. Retreatism- Retreatists reject both the cultural goals and the socially acceptable means of attaining them. Unlike innovators and ritualists, they make no effort to appear to share their society’s goals and norms. Examples of retreatists may include drug addicts, beggars, and the homeless. Rebellion- Rebels want to substitute a new set of goals and means for the currently approved set. Members of any revolutionary movement or terrorist organization fall into this category of deviant adaptation. 15. Using the picture on page 180, how do you think this group of sailors has adapted the response of conformity? • They have all conformed to naval standards of dress and behavior. 16. What do conflict theorists believe? Who is Richard Quinney? ► ► ► ► ► ► Conflict theorists believe that competition and social inequality lead to deviance. They see social life as a struggle between those who possess power—the ruling class—and those who do not—the lower class. People with power commit deviant acts in an effort to maintain their position. Bribing a U.S. Senator to pass a tax bill that they benefit from. People without power, on the other hand, commit deviant acts for one of two reasons. They turn to deviance either to obtain economic rewards or because they have low self-esteem and feelings of powerlessness. ► Begging for money or protesting at a rally of some kind. According to conflict theorist Richard Quinney, the ruling classes label any behavior that threatens their power base as deviant. Higher taxes for the rich. Because the lower classes have only limited opportunities in life, they are often forced to commit acts defined as deviant. Dealing drugs, etc. To protect their power, the ruling classes then establish ideologies—belief systems—that explain deviance as a problem found primarily among the lower classes. Thus, law enforcement efforts are most often directed toward the types of crimes committed by the lower classes. As a result, these groups have higher rates of arrest and conviction. 17. Using the pictures on page 181, why do you think these groups are committing deviant acts? Opinion 18. What are the three major explanations for deviance given by interactionists? Briefly describe each one and the theorists behind each. Control theory Explains deviance as a natural occurrence. The focus of control theory is somewhat different. Control theorists are interested in why people conform rather than the causes of deviance. Social ties among individuals, control theorists propose, determine conformity. Control theorists suggest that individuals who are integrated into the community are likely to conform. Conversely, those who have weak ties to the community are likely to commit deviant acts. According to Travis Hirschi, a leading control theorist, people develop strong social bonds in four ways. First, they form attachments with others—parents, teachers, and friends— who accept the norms of society. Second, they have a strong belief in the moral codes of society, accepting that some behavior is simply wrong. Third, they show commitment to traditional societal values and goals, such as getting a good education or job. Finally, they are fully involved in non-deviant activities—leaving no time for deviant behavior. Cultural transmission theory This theory explains deviance as a learned behavior. Deviant behavior is learned in much the same way that nondeviant behavior is learned—through interaction with others. However, in the case of deviant behavior, the interaction is primarily among individuals who are engaging in deviant acts. The concept of differential association is at the heart of the cultural transmission theory. This concept was first proposed by American sociologist and criminologist Edwin Sutherland. This concept refers to the frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviant and non-deviant individuals. If the majority of a person’s interactions are with deviant individuals, the person is likely to be socialized into patterns of deviant behavior. On the other hand, if the person’s associations are primarily with individuals who conform to society’s norms, that person is more likely to conform. Labeling theory Instead of focusing on why people perform deviant acts, labeling theory focuses on how individuals come to be identified as deviant. Labeling theory is heavily influenced by the work of sociologists Edwin Lemert and Howard Becker. Labeling theorists note that all people commit deviant acts during their lives. These acts range from the minor to the serious, yet not everyone is labeled as deviant. Labeling theorists suggest this due to deviance consists of two parts: Primary deviance is nonconformity that goes undetected by those in authority. Secondary deviance, on the other hand, results in the individual being labeled as deviant and accepting the label as true. The process of labeling an individual as deviant is usually accompanied by what sociologist Harold Garfinkel called a degradation ceremony. In some kind of public setting—such as a trial—the individual is denounced, found guilty, and given the new identity of deviant. In many instances the label of deviant restricts an individual’s options in the larger society and forces him or her into a deviant life style. The label of deviant is a self-fulfilling prophecy with people being treated as deviant and being encouraged to commit other deviant acts. 19. Using the picture on page 182, how do you think these communities might encourage conformity? • By using family and community pressure to make people conform and by ostracizing those who do not. 20. Using the picture on page 184, how do you these public hearings and the labeling affected the lives of those accused? • Many of the people labeled as communists experienced discrimination, such as losing their jobs and social standing. Sociology Chapter 8 Lecture Questions Section 2 (pages 187-197) 1. What is a crime? What is a moral code? A crime is any act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government. • For example, a person who robs a bank—an act that is labeled criminal, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government—has committed a crime. On the other hand, a champion swimmer who stands by and watches a friend drown instead of attempting a rescue has not necessarily committed a crime. The swimmer may have violated a moral code but not necessarily a law. • A moral code is an internal rule of conduct based on one’s value system. 2. Using the chart on page 187, how much lower was the percentage of people age 45-54 arrested than of those age 35 to 44? What factors contributed to this difference? 12.1 percent difference Younger people tend to commit more crimes. 3. Who publishes the Uniform Crime Report (UCR)? Where do they get their information on crime from? The UCR is published by the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation). The UCR is one of the major sources of information concerning crime in the U.S. The FBI uses data provided by local police departments to compile nationwide statistics. Did You Know Of the cities with populations of 500,000 or more. (2009) Most dangerous (highest crime rate) Detroit, Michigan Baltimore, Maryland Memphis, Tennessee Washington, DC Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Safest (lowest crime rate) San Jose, California Honululu, Hawaii El Paso, Texas New York, New York Austin, Texas 4. What factors limit the filing of formal crime reports according to sociologist Donald Black? Crime statistics have certain limitations. Sociologist Donald Black identified the following characteristics that limit the filing of formal crime reports. – Not all of the complaints that citizens make to the police find their way into the official statistics. – The responding officer decides whether or not to file a formal report. – Officers are more likely to file reports in the cases of serious offenses. – Individuals are less likely to report a crime if family or friends are involved. – The police are more likely to file formal reports on serious crimes when the injured parties are members of the higher social classes. – Whether an officer files a formal complaint is influenced by the attitude of the individual making the complaint. – An officer is more likely to file a formal complaint when the person making the complaint shows courtesy and respect toward the officer. – Crime figures can also be affected by changes in the way that statistics are reported or by incorrect reporting. 5. What types of crimes are more likely to go unreported by the victims? Certain types of crime—such as sexual assault—are more likely to go unreported by the victims. Other types of crimes with low reporting include child abuse and spousal abuse. 6. Using the table on page 188, what are the most serious types of crime? Give five examples. What are the less serious types of crime? Give five examples. • Part I offenses (felonies) • Murder • Robbery • Arson • Aggravated assault • Forcible Rape • Part II offenses (misdemeanors) • Fraud • Embezzlement • Vandalism • Drug Abuse Violations (except narcotics) • Gambling 7. Using the chart on page 189, what is the difference in the percentage of total arrests for murder compared to larceny? Which offense was the highest of the Part I Offenses? Which offense was the highest of the Part II Offenses? • The difference is 8.68%. • Larceny (8.8%) • Other offenses (except traffic) (27%) 8. What are the four types of violent crimes? How often does each occur? What is the relationship between violent crime and African Americans? What is the relationship between guns and violent crime. Violent crimes—murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault—make up a very small percentage of all crimes committed. According to UCR statistics, a violent crime occurs every 22 seconds in the U.S. Aggravated assault—every 35 seconds Robbery—every 78 seconds Forcible rape—every 5 minutes 48 seconds Murder—every 33 minutes 54 seconds Most victims of violence are African American. Guns are used in about 65 percent of all murders, with handguns being the weapon used in about 51 percent of the cases. Another 13 percent of murder are committed with knives. Crime in Wichita Crime in Wichita was down in six of the seven crime categories in 2010, with burglaries showing the only increase from 2009. Crime Reports Change from 2009 Violent Crime Murder 16 (-36%) Rape 246 (-3.1%) Robbery 48 -8.7% Aggravated assault 2,283 (6.4%) Property Crime Burglary 4,2414 (+.8%) Theft 12,472 (10.2%) Auto theft 1,528 (8.3%) 9. Using the graph on page 190, what general trend did each of these categories of violent crime experience in the late 1990s? Violent crime experienced a general decrease in its rate in the late 1990s. 10. Using the visual on page 190, how can neighborhood involvement help decrease crime? Neighborhood involvement helps to decrease crime by helping spot suspicious strangers and knowing when houses are empty. 11. Using the case study on page 191, how does domestic terrorism differ from international terrorism? What do you think is the best way to combat terrorism? Explain your answer. Domestic terrorism involves actions taken by individual terrorists or terrorist groups based and operating in the U.S. International terrorism involves acts committed by groups or individuals based outside the U.S. or directed by organizations outside the U.S. Forming the Office of Homeland Security. Increasing security procedures at airports. Tracking people suspected of having terrorist ties. Did You Know The word terrorism dates back to a period of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror (1793-94). During this period, a group of rebels who had gained power used terror and violence against anyone suspected of being an enemy of the revolution. During the Reign of Terror, some 300,000 people were arrested, and some 17,000 were executed. 12. What are the four types of crimes against property? How often is this type of crime committed in the U.S.? Burglary Larceny (other than auto) Motor vehicle theft Arson A crime against property occurs every 3 seconds. 13. How do sociologists explain variations in crime rates? What else happened in the 1980s and 1990s that caused the crime rate to escalate slightly? Sociologists generally tie variations in the crime rate to changes in the population. People under the age of 25 commit a large percentage of crimes. • As the size of this segment of the population changes, the crime rate varies in the same direction. In the 1980s and 1990s increases in the crime rate appeared to be partially the result of illegal drug use. Expensive drug habits are often financed through crime. • In addition, many serious crimes are committed while people are under the influence of drugs. Killer Summers Based on a study of crime in the U.S. from 1950 to 1995, more violent crimes occurred during the summer months than during other seasons. Laboratory experiments have also shown a direct link between hot temperatures and aggressive thought and behavior. Sociologist Jack Levin suggests another reason, however, for higher summer crime rates. Levin states that during summer, people tend more often to congregate in large groups. More gatherings provide a greater chance for arguments to occur and for more potential victims to be located in one place. 14. Using the graph on page 192, what was the difference in the rates of larceny and burglary in 1998? The difference in the rates of larceny and burglary was about 1800 cases per 100,000 population. 15. What are victimless crimes? Give examples of this type of crime. Such offenses are termed victimless because they supposedly harm no one but the person committing the act. This classification may be somewhat misleading in some of these crimes, however. While people other than the offenders may not suffer directly, the consequences for society of crimes such as drug abuse can be significant. These crimes include: prostitution, illegal gambling, illegal drug use, and vagrancy. 16. Who coined the term white-collar crime? Who commits these types of crimes? Give examples of this type of crime. How much does this type of crime cost the U.S. every year? Edwin Sutherland coined the term white-collar crime to describe offenses committed by individuals of high social status in the course of their professional lives. Politicians, employees of corporations, and corporations themselves sometimes commit crimes of this type. Bernie Madoff – ponzi scheme ($50 billion) Martha Stewart – insider trading Misrepresentation, fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement, price fixing, toxic pollution, insider trading, and political corruption are examples of white-collar crime. Conservative estimates suggest that white-collar crimes cost the U.S. more than $300 billion each year. 17. What is a crime syndicate? What types of crime are they involved with? A crime syndicate is a large-scale organization of professional criminals that controls some vice or business through violence or the threat of violence. These organizations pursue crime as a big business. Such syndicates operate in many areas of business, many of them legal. They often use legitimate businesses as “fronts” for their criminal activities. This enables the syndicates to reinvest their money through legal channels. By using such methods as drug trafficking, illegal gambling, prostitution, unfair labor practices, hijacking of merchandise, and loan sharking— lending money at very high interest rates—organized crime syndicates make huge profits. Racketeering includes: bribery to officials, theft, extortion, money laundering, and even counterfeiting. Organized crime tree Mafia terms Made-man—full fledged member Associate—one who works with mobsters La Cosa Nostra—mob term for family or mafia Rat—informant to the FBI Whack—kill or murder someone Capo—family member who leads a crew Code of silence—don’t rat out anyone Witness protection—testify and hide RICO—Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act Pinched—to get caught by the cops or Feds Shakedown—to get money from someone Wiseguy—a made guy Underboss—the second in command Don—head of the crime family Prohibition and Organized Crime • In 1920 the Eighteenth Amendment banned the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the U.S. • Called prohibition, this ban led to the growth of organized crime through the smuggling and selling of alcohol. • As millions of dollars shifted from legal businesses to criminal organizations, crime became big business. • After the Twenty-first Amendment repealed prohibition in 1933, organized crime “families” turned to other criminal activities. 18. What makes up the criminal-justice system? Police— Have the most control over who is arrested for crimes. Use police discretion, which has raised the controversial issue of racial profiling. District Attorney— Decides if charges should be filed. Courts— Determines the accused’s guilt or innocence in a court trial and then assigns a punishment. Actually settles 90 percent of cases through plea bargaining. Corrections— Includes probation, imprisonment and parole. Juvenile-justice system— Applies to offenders younger than 18. Guarantees juvenile defendant’s the same legal rights and privileges as adults. Often provides more services. 19. What is police discretion? Why is this used? What factors are considered by a police officer before making an arrest? What is racial profiling? Police have considerable power to decide who is actually arrested. Reasons for police discretion are: The size of the U.S. population Population of US is over 300 million. The number of criminal offenses. The number of full-time police officers. The number of officers is around 1 million. Research has indicated that several factors are considered by a police officer when deciding whether to make an arrest. First, the seriousness of the offense is considered. Less serious offenses are more likely to be ignored. Second, the wishes of the victim are taken into consideration. If the offense is serious or if the suspect is a male, victims generally press for an arrest. Third, the attitude of the suspect is considered. An uncooperative suspect is more likely to be arrested than one who is polite or apologetic. Fourth, if bystanders are present, the police are more likely to make an arrest. In doing so, the police reinforce the point that they are in control of the situation. Racial profiling—is the practice of assuming that nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit crime than white Americans. This issue of racial profiling has become an important political issue, particularly in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on America in September 2001. 20. Using the graph on page 194, how much did the prison population increase between 1995 and 2000? The prison population increased some 233, 000 between 1995 and 2000. The total number of people behind bars in the U.S. is now well over 2 million. Kansas Prisons El Dorado Holds approximately 1178 inmates Maximum/medium custody Death row located here Ellsworth Holds approximately 550 inmates Medium/minimum custody Hutchinson 2nd oldest Kansas prison Formerly called Kansas State Industrial Reformatory Lansing Oldest and largest prison in Kansas (1868) Holds approximately 2335 inmates Death Penalty would be carried out here Larned Houses the most severely mentally ill inmates Larned State Mental Hospital grounds Norton & Stockton Holds approximately 700 inmates Minimum and medium custody Topeka Women’s facility Wichita Work Release 250 minimum custody inmates Winfield Holds approximately 550 minimum custody inmates 21. What is the courts’ role in the criminal-justice system? Once a person is arrested, the responsibility shifts to the courts. The courts’ role is a two-fold process. • First, a court determines the guilt or innocence of an accused person by means of a trial. • Second, if there is a guilty finding, the court assigns some form of punishment. In reality, however, more than 90 percent of all criminal cases are settled through plea bargaining before going to trial. 22. What is plea bargaining? What percent of cases are settled this way? Why is it used? Plea bargaining is the process of legal negotiation that allows an accused person to plead guilty to a lesser charge in return for a lighter sentence. This process allows courts to reduce their huge volume of caseloads while avoiding many expensive and time-consuming jury trials. 23. What does a criminologist do? Criminologists investigate the causes of crime and methods of crime prevention. Criminologists have many career options in the criminal-justice system. Consultants to police departments. Administrative positions in the courts. Parole and probation officers. Counselors in substance-abuse and rehabilitation programs. Work in the corrections system, assessing problems and setting policies. The Science of Criminology Criminology emerged in Italy during the 1700s. The publication of On Crimes and Punishments by Italian Cesare Bonesana helped found the classical school of criminology. This school protested the harsh punishments in place at the time. Its members held that punishment should serve only to prevent future crime and that everyone convicted of the same crime should receive the same punishment, regardless of status. These beliefs provide the foundation for many of the principles in modern U.S. criminal law. 24. What sanctions are used in our criminal-justice system? Imprisonment— Parole— Sent to a prison for a specific sentence. Spent time in a prison, but are released with certain rules to follow and must report to a parole officer. Probation— Instead of going to prison, one agrees to follow certain rules and report to a probation officer. 25. What four basic functions do corrections serve? Retribution— The punishing of a criminal serves as an act of revenge for the victim and society. Deterrence— Corrections are intended to discourage offenders from committing future crimes. Also, to make the rest of society think twice before breaking laws. Rehabilitation— During the 1800s, prisons emerged as places in which to reform criminals so that they could return to society as law-abiding citizens. Social protection— By limiting the freedom of offenders, society prevents them from committing additional crimes. In the case of the death penalty, the threat of an offender committing future criminal acts is eliminated. 26. What is recidivism? Why is it controversial? Recidivism is the term for repeated criminal behavior. According to a U.S. Department of Justice study, 62 % of released prisoners will be charged with new crimes and 41 % will return to prison with three years of release. High recidivism rates mean corrections does not work. 27. What types of punishments can the courts assign? Imprisonment Fines Probation The majority of convicted criminals are punished through fines and probation. 28. Using the map on page 196, what state had the highest rate of imprisonment? What rate did most states have? Louisiana Maryland Mississippi Oklahoma Texas A rate of 300 to 499 per 100,000 population. 29. How are juveniles treated in our criminal-justice system? The third largest category of criminals in the U.S. consists of juvenile offenders—offenders younger than 18. Until the 1960s, juveniles charged with crimes had few rights and were not protected by the same legal safeguards provided for adult offenders. Laws that pertain to adult offenders refer to well-defined offenses, carry specific punishments, and apply more or less equally to all offenders. However, the laws for juvenile offenses were much less specific. The courts now must guarantee juvenile defendants the same legal rights and privileges as adult defendants. At the same time, juvenile delinquents are still regarded as a special kind of offender. Juvenile courts try, in principle at least, to provide many more services for offenders than do adult criminal courts. Yet, in some areas of the country, juveniles—even very young suspects—can be tried as adults for certain serious offenses, such as murder. 30. Using the visual on page 197, how might gaining an education help rehabilitate convicted criminals? Learning a trade might give released prisoners more job options and thereby an increased chance of not committing future crimes.