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Canada and The Cold War
The Cold War…brrrrrr
After World War Two the
world is broken into two
main camps. Lead by
1. The Soviet Union
2. The United States
What is the Cold War?
Period lasting from 1945 – 1991.
Characterized by tension and
hostility between the Communist
Soviet Union and its allies and the
Capitalist and democratic United
States and its allies.
Canada and the Cold War
Caught in the Middle – USSR on top, USA
underneath…Canada is the main missile and
bomber route. Wrong place at the wrong
Canada was involved in The Cold War as an
ally to the U.S and NATO
Our alliance with them evolved naturally
because of our geographic proximity,
history of co-operation and similar political
and economic systems.
Spread of Communism
Soviets took
countries in
Europe to
create a
buffer zone
from the
The Iron Curtain
The Iron Curtain was the physical
boundary, built by the Soviet Union,
dividing Europe into two separate
areas from1945 until the end of the
Cold War in 1991.
The term symbolized efforts by the
Soviet Union to block itself and its
neighbouring states from open
contact with the west and nonSoviet-controlled areas.
The Iron Curtain
Germany and Berlin Split
Berlin Wall
Many were fleeing Soviet Berlin.
Soviets decide to put up a wall to
keep people in.
In 1948 the Soviets blockade all the
ground links to West Berlin
Berlin Wall
Building the Wall
Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall stood until November 9,
The reunification of East and West
Germany was made official on October
3, 1990
NATO and Warsaw Pact
WEST – NATO (1949)
• Military Alliance (sound familiar?)
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization
• Led by the United States
EAST – Warsaw Pact (1955)
• Military Alliance, response to NATO
• Led by Soviet Russia
Domino Theory
The domino theory was a 20th
Century foreign policy theory,
promoted by the government of the
United States, that speculated if one
land in a region came under the
influence of Communists, then more
would follow in a domino effect.
Hmm…..Anyone remember the causes
of WW1?
In partners, apply your knowledge of
WW1 causes to the Cold War situation
What do you find is similar? different?
Causes of WW1 and Cold War
• Nuclear Arms Race…even worse
• NATO and Warsaw Pact
• Spheres of influence
• Economic system instead of nations?
Sounds like trouble…
North American Defence
NORAD – North American Air
Defence Agreement
 HQ buried in Cheyenne Mountain,
 Centrally controlled and coordinated
defence of North American Air Space
• Fighter forces
• Missile bases
• Air defence radar
Canada and NORAD
Protection from Soviet Air Attack
(bombers initially, then missiles)
 US built three lines of radar stations
across Canada (built between 1950-57)
• The Pinetree Line
• The Mid-Canada Line
• Dew Line (in the artic) - Distant Early
Warning Line
DEW Controversy
Many Canadians felt this defence
system compromised our
 Was this a necessary price of added