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Transcript
Introducing
World War II
How do
societies
react to
adversity?
The War in the
United States
1
The Road to War
The Great Depression
upset the world.
• Most of the countries of the
world were effected.
• Industrial countries, like
Germany, Italy, and Japan were
especially hurt.
• People were desperate.
2
The Road to War
People were looking for
leaders to help them recover
• Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a
third term to continue as president of
the United States.
• Dictators came to power in other
countries.
– Hitler came to power in Germany.
– Mussolini came to power in Italy.
– The military seized power in Japan and
set up a military dictatorship.
3
The Road to War
• Germany and Italy became allies-Axis
Powers.
• Germany signed treaty with the Soviet
Union.
• Japan tried to revive their country by
attacking their neighbors.
• Other countries in Europe were
against Japan’s expansion.
4
War Begins in
Europe
• Italy and Germany attacked and
conquered their neighbors.
5
Great Britain
Fights
• Great Britain was attacked once
most of Europe had fallen.
• This period of the war was
known as the “Battle of Britain.”
6
Trouble Brews in
the Pacific
• Japan attacks its neighbors.
• Invades French Indo-China.
7
America’s Position
• America followed a policy of
isolationism or neutrality.
• Most people felt that the U.S.
should not get involved.
• Laws were passed to help
friendly nations by providing
military aid to the Allied Powers.
8
War Becomes
Inevitable
• German submarines sink
American military ships.
• Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on
December 7, 1941.
9
War is Declared!
• America declared war on Japan.
• Germany and Italy declared war
on the United States.
10
Americans Face the
Adversity of War.
Standing in line for sugar
11
War on the Home
Front
The challenges facing our nation
included…
• recruiting an Army.
• producing the items of war.
• finding people to work as the men left
for war.
• paying for the war effort.
• living with the effects of the war at
home.
12
War on the Home
Front:
Recruiting an Army
• Volunteers
• The draft
• Non-combat volunteers
• Conscientious objectors
– Objected to fighting
– Found other non-combat jobs
13
War on the Home
Front
Increasing Production Meant…
• a complete change in production.
• that factories produced war
items instead of consumer items.
• that production increased
beyond anything in the past.
14
War on the Home
Front
Sacrifice
• Scarcity caused shortages.
• Rationing was the result of the
shortages.
• Methods were used to
supplement shortages.
15
War on the Home
Front
War Jobs
• As the men went to war, male
dominated jobs became
vacant.
• Women stepped in to fill
these traditionally male jobs.
16
War on the Home
Front
Financing the War
• The government spent more than
it received in taxes.
• The government sold war bonds
to raise money.
• People bought bonds as an
investment.
17
War on the Home
Front
Censorship…
• rose out of a need to restrict
information to the enemy.
• focused on news media.
• was a voluntary restriction on
freedom of speech.
18
The Beginning of
the End
• Invasion of Italy
• D-day
19
Victory in Europe
• Important battles weaken
Germany.
• President Roosevelt dies in
office.
• Germany surrenders.
• V-E day was the end of the war in
Europe.
20
Atomic Bomb Hastens
the End in Japan
• The hydrogen bomb was
developed during the war.
• It was first dropped on
Hiroshima, Japan.
• It was next dropped on Nagasaki,
Japan.
• Unprecedented destruction
brought surrender.
21
Victory in Japan
• V-J day was the end of the war in
the Pacific.
• Japanese signed a formal
surrender.
22
Americans Come
Home
• Great losses
• U. S. fared better than most
countries
• Pulled out of depression by
military spending
• Changed greatly
• Poised for prosperity
23
Questions?
24