Download SNC2D Respiratory System

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◦ Bringing
into the
◦ Getting rid
of carbon
epithelial tissue that lines the trachea
and bronchi produce mucus (traps dirt).
epithelial tissue also has cilia
(microscopic hair-like structures) to
move mucus and foreign material out.
trachea (windpipe) is supported by rings
of cartilage (connective tissue) – keeps it
open for air to flow freely
involves the diaphragm (a large sheet of muscle
underneath the lungs) and the muscles between the
an involuntary process that we can override while
talking but only temporarily
controlled by a part of the human brain that detects the
concentration of CO2 in our blood
Air Pathway
air enters through the nostrils (air is filtered by nose hair)
nasal cavity (air is warmed and humidified)
pharynx (throat)
larynx (voicebox)
trachea (windpipe)
bronchi (there are 2, each leads to 1 lung)
alveoli (clusters of air sacs with a very large surface area,
surrounded by capillaries)
Trachea (windpipe)
◦ tube that takes
air from the back
of the throat
down to the lungs
◦ as the trachea
approaches the lungs
it splits into two
bronchi, one bronchus
leads to each lung
◦ continues splitting into
small bronchiole tubes
ending in the alveoli
Alveoli (singular: alveolus)
 millions of alveoli provide a large
total surface area for greater
absorption of gases
 a thin, single layer of flattened
cells are on the wall of each
alveolus to decrease the distance
that gases need to diffuse across
 a dense network of capillaries
(tiny blood vessels) surrounding
the alveolus remove CO2 from
the blood and absorb O2
 Hemoglobin, the protein
found in red blood cells,
pick up O2 from the alveoli
to transport to the rest of
the body
the circulatory system
provides a good blood
supply the lungs
the concentration of O2
in the blood that flows
through the lungs is
always less than the
concentration of O2 in
the air in the alveoli,
therefore O2 always
diffuses from alveoli
into the blood.
 Some
contaminants in some people will
trigger inflammation of the airways, i.e.
 People with asthma inhale corticosteroids
(using “puffers”) to reduce the inflammation.
infectious disease – easily spread
caused by bacteria in the lungs
general symptoms: fever, cough, weight loss,
fatigue, and chest pain.
diagnosed by a chest X-ray.
problem: TB bacteria can remain dormant for
many years – waiting for the immune system
to be compromised to take over.
however, once detected, the disease can be
successfully treated with medicine and/or a
few weeks hospitalization
disease of the respiratory system
symptoms: flu-like (high fever), shortness of
breath, dry cough, sore throat, headache,
muscle pain, and exhaustion.
tobacco use – first
and second-hand
smoking is
detrimental to the
respiratory system
contains carcinogens
“What is Breathing and Respiration?”