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Respiratory System
Humans & Environment
All animals exchange gases with
their environment
Animals take in oxygen (O2),
release carbon dioxide (CO2)
 Process is called respiration
Reacts with nutrients in mitochondria
to release energy
Carbon Dioxide
Waste product as a result of these
Gases cannot be stored like nutrients
can, so gases must be exchanged
Humans are large warm-blooded
animals, with very high oxygen
Define endotherm (page 219)
Air is warmed, cleaned and
moistened as it enters via mouth or
nasal cavity
Achieved by mucus and tiny hair
Epiglottis (flap-like structures)
covers the trachea when
swallowing, opens when breathing
Flowing down windpipe (trachea), air enters
Bronchi divide into bronchioles (network of
smaller tubes)
Trachea, bronchi are supported by cartilage
rings holding them open
Goblet Cells
Inner lining of trachea, bronchi and
bronchioles lined with cilia and mucusproducing goblet cells
Mucus traps tiny particles (bacteria, dust, pollen)
carried out of lungs by sweeping action of cilia
Bronchioles branch further into tiny
air sacs called alveoli
This is where gas exchange occurs
Each lung has 150
million alveoli!
Total surface area
times your skin
Alveoli cont’d…
Surrounding each air sac, is a
capillary network….
Blood from the heart is pumped here to
obtain oxygen
O2 passes into capillaries via diffusion
At the same time, CO2 diffuses out of the
blood and into the lungs
Oxygenated Blood
How could you describe the
blood leaving the lungs going
back to the heart?
How we breathe…