Download Ch 5 PP

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Employment discrimination wikipedia, lookup

Sexism wikipedia, lookup

Racism in the LGBT community wikipedia, lookup

Social stigma wikipedia, lookup

Employment discrimination law in the United States wikipedia, lookup

Racism in the Arab world wikipedia, lookup

Racism in Africa wikipedia, lookup

Racism in Italy wikipedia, lookup

Racism in Asia wikipedia, lookup

Employment Non-Discrimination Act wikipedia, lookup

United Kingdom employment equality law wikipedia, lookup

Ambivalent sexism wikipedia, lookup

Racism wikipedia, lookup

Ageism wikipedia, lookup

Sexual racism wikipedia, lookup

Racism in North America wikipedia, lookup

Mentalism (discrimination) wikipedia, lookup

Aversive racism wikipedia, lookup

Racism in Europe wikipedia, lookup

Racial stereotyping in advertising wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Chapter 5
Stereotypes, Prejudice, and
Discrimination
Defining Important Terms
• Racism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a
person’s background
• Sexism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a
person’s gender
• Stereotypes: Beliefs that associate a whole group
of people with certain traits.
• Prejudice: Negative feelings about others because
of their connection to a social group.
• Discrimination: Negative behaviors directed
against persons because of their membership in a
particular group.
Persistence and Change
• In general, stereotyping, prejudice, and
discrimination are less acceptable than ever
before.
• But exceptions do exist.
Racism: Current Forms and Challenges
• Research reveals that racial prejudice has
been on the decline over the last several
decades
• Re-election of Barack Obama was seen by
many as significant sign of racial progress
Types of Racism
• Modern Racism: A form of racism that surfaces
in subtle ways when it is safe, socially
acceptable, and easy to rationalize
• Implicit Racism: Racism that operates
unconsciously and unintentionally
Sexism: Ambivalence and Double
Standards
• Blatant displays of sexism are less socially
acceptable than in the past
– But do continue to persist today
• Gender stereotypes are distinct in that they
are not only descriptive, but also prescriptive
– They tell people what they should do or be
Ambivalent Sexism
• Form of sexism characterized by attitudes
about women that reflect both negative,
resentful beliefs/feelings as well as
affectionate and chivalrous but potentially
patronizing beliefs/feelings
– Hostile sexism
– Benevolent sexism
• Seems to have diminished over time, but
discrimination based on sex is still prevalent
today
Being Stigmatized
• Being persistently stereotyped, perceived as
deviant, and devalued in society because of
membership in a particular social group or
because of a particular characteristic.
Stereotype Threat
• Stereotype threat is the fear that one will be
reduced to a stereotype in the eyes of others.
• How can stereotype threat hamper academic
achievement?
– The reactions to the threat can directly interfere
with performance.
– The threat can cause individuals to dismiss the
domain as no longer relevant to their self-esteem
and identity.
Social Categorization and Intergroup
Conflict
• The classification of persons into groups on
the basis of attributes
• In some ways, is natural and adaptive
– Saves time and energy
• But can lead to overestimation of differences
between groups and underestimation of
differences within groups
Ingroups vs. Outgroups
• Strong tendency to divide people into ingroups and
outgroups.
• Consequences
– Exaggerate differences between ingroups and
other outgroups
– Outgroup homogeneity effect
• New research indicates that perceivers may actually
process faces of outgroup members more like
objects than fellow human beings
• Dehumanization has played a role in atrocities
throughout history
Social Identity Theory
• Two Basic Predictions:
– Threats to one’s self-esteem heighten the need for
ingroup favoritism.
– Expressions of ingroup favoritism enhance one’s
self-esteem.
Culture and Social Identity
• Collectivists more likely to value connectedness and
interdependence with people and groups around
them
• Collectivists less likely to show biases favoring their
ingroups in order to boost their self-esteem.
• But collectivists may draw sharper distinctions
between ingroup and outgroup members.
• Socialization refers to process by which people learn
the norms, rules, and information of a culture or
group
– Includes stereotypes and status of groups
Gender Stereotypes
• Inundated with gender stereotypes from birth
and through the life span
– E.g., males more adventurous, assertive,
aggressive, independent, etc.
– E.g., females more sensitive, gentle, dependent,
emotional, etc.
• Media
• Children begin to understand these
stereotypes quite early – one study, by age of
2
Are Stereotypes Ever Accurate?
• What is meant by “accurate”?
• Stereotyping can often lead to self-fulfilling
prophecies which further distort perceptions
and realities
Confirmation Biases and Self-Fulfilling
Prophecies
• Stereotypes are often maintained and
strengthened through confirmation biases.
– Tendency to interpret, seek, and create
information to confirm expectations
• Stereotypes can cause a perceiver to act in
such a way that the stereotyped group
member really does behave in a stereotypeconfirming way.
– The stereotype creates a “self-fulfilling prophecy.”
How Stereotypes Survive and
Self-Perpetuate
• Illusory correlation: The tendency for people
to overestimate the link between variables
that are only slightly or not at all correlated.
• Tend to overestimate the association between
variables when:
– The variables are distinctive
– The variables are already expected to go together