Download It`s All Greek to Me

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Mother goddess wikipedia , lookup

Pandora wikipedia , lookup

LGBT themes in mythology wikipedia , lookup

God of War (2005 video game) wikipedia , lookup

Age of Mythology wikipedia , lookup

Shapeshifting wikipedia , lookup

Miraculous births wikipedia , lookup

Moirai wikipedia , lookup

Persephone wikipedia , lookup

Zeus wikipedia , lookup

It’s All Greek to
Classical Allusions
Pantheon of Greek Gods & Goddesses
Gaia & Uranus
Gaia (Gaea) =
Mother Earth
Uranus = her
son & ruler of
• Lays with Uranus to create the 12 TITANS: 1st rulers of
the Universe
• Had other 6 children: 3 100-handed giants & 3 cyclops
• Uranus refused to give up his power to the next
generation, so he pushed the Titans back into Gaia’s
Cronos & Rhea
• Son and daughter of Gaia &
• Cronos kills Uranus by
emasculating him
• Cronos is the same kind of
tyrant his father was
• Cronos eats the children Rhea
bears him
• After the birth of Zeus,Rhea
tricks Cronos by giving him a
rock to eat instead of the baby.
• She sends Zeus to be raised
on Crete.
Other Titans: Prometheus
• Put in charge of creating
all creatures to populate
He’s wise; name means “forethought”
Brother Epimetheus is scatterbrained;
name means “afterthought”
• Creates humans out of
• Gives man fire
• Punishment – he’s bound
and carnivorous bird eats
his liver out each day
(regrows at night)
– Heracles rescues him
Other Titans: Epimetheus &
• Epi’s job is to give creatures
gifts (birds=wings;
turtles=shells); he runs out of
gifts before man
• Married to Pandora
– Prometheus warns gullible Epi not
to accept gifts (including
Pandora) from Zeus whom he
doesn’t trust
– She’s a human; gods all gave her
gifts including a box – her greatest
– She’s too curious and opens the
box allowing all evils out to plague
and torment men
– Only hope remained in the box
Other Titans: Atlas
• Because Atlas is
Cronos’ brother and a
threat to the throne,
Zeus sentences Atlas
to hold up the world
Mount Olympus: Home of the Gods
Great Zeus!
• Romans called him Jupiter
• Greatest of all Olympians
• Grandma Gaia helps him
gain power over father by
giving Cronos potion to throw
up all his children. Cronos’ 5
other children emerged fully
• During his fight with Cronos,
Zeus cuts off Cronos’
genitals just as Cronos did to
Uranus (thus fulfilling the prophecy)
Zeus married his sister Hera
•They have a ROCKY relationship
•Their children are a son Ares & a
daughter Hebe
•She gives birth to Hephaestus by
•She’s goddess of marriage (ironic!)
•Roman name Juno
Zeus’ Conquests
• Not faithful to Hera
– Danae (as golden
shower) = baby
– Alcmena (as her
hubby) = baby
Zeus’ Conquests cont’d
•Leda (as swan) = 2
babies from eggs: Helen
of Troy & Pollux [he’s
also the twin of Castor –
different daddies)
•Europa (as a bull) =
King Minos of Crete
Zeus’ Conquests cont’d
– Callisto (as another
Olympian) = baby
Arcas; Hera’s jealous,
so Zeus turns her into
a bear. The bear is
killed by the gods so
Zeus transforms her
into the Constellation:
Ursa Major; her son
becomes Ursa Minor
Zeus’ Sister: Demeter
• Goddess of
agriculture & nature /
the harvest
• Doesn’t live on Mount
• Roman name: Ceres
(the root word for cereal)
• Mother of Persephone
Zeus’ Sister: Hestia
- Goddess of the hearth
(home fire)
• Can’t leave the home
so she doesn’t figure
in any stories
– Virgin
– Roman name: Vesta; her
priestesses were called
Vestal Virgins
Zeus’ Brother: Poseidon
•God of the Sea, horses and
•Romans called him
• God of the Underworld
• Romans called him Pluto
• Married to Persephone (Roman = Proserpine)
Demeter’s daughter
Hades and
• He kidnapped her. After
Demeter refuses to work for a
year, Zeus intervenes and
makes Hades return
Persephone to her mother.
• Before Persephone leaves,
Hades gives her a
pomegranate (a special food to
the dead); She eats 4-6
seeds. Because of that she
was doomed to return to
• He mother mourns during
Persephone’s absence which
causes winter.
Hades: Ya Don’t Wanna Go There
Hades: Ya Don’t Wanna Go There
Entrance to
Charon the Ferryman on the River
Gods: The Next Generation
• Hephaestus
Son of Hera
Ugly, lame
Married to Aphrodite
Makes armor and
weapons (esp. Zeus’
• Worked under a
– Peaceful, kind
– Roman name: Vulcan
Gods: The Next Generation
• Ares
– God of War – esp.
destructive forces
• As opposed to Athena,
a war goddess who
used war for defense
– Son of Zeus & Hera
• Who don’t like him
– Unpleasant
– Has relationship with
• Perhaps because both
represent wild impulses
– Roman name: Mars
Gods: The Next Generation
• Hermes
• Son of Zeus & Maia (Atlas’
– God of
Commerce & Trade,
Shepherds & travelers
Fertility & prosperity
– Go-between for Zeus
• For negotiations
– Esp. the female kind
– Carried the snake entwined
staff (now doctors’ symbol)
– Roman name: Mercury
Gods: The Next Generation
• Dionysis
– God of wine & vegetation
(parties . . .)
– Son of Zeus & Semele
– Roman name: Bacchus
– Festivals in his honor became
the beginning of drama
– Had a “posse”
• Maenads = female worshippers
• Satyrs = (aka fauns) ½ man, ½
• As well as other animals
Gods: The Next Generation
• Son of Zeus & Leto
(another of his conquests)
• Has a twin sister,
• Drives his chariot
through the sky
bringing the sun
• God over music,
archery, healing
(medicine), light and
truth (hence his
oracle at Delphi)
• Sometimes called Phoebus
Apollo (Phoebus means
Gods: The Next Generation
Proteus & Triton
• Sons of Poseidon
(Proteus is older)
• Mermen
Goddesses: The Next Generation
•Springs fully formed from the sea
from Uranus’ seed after Cronos cut
off his genitals
•Roman name: Venus
•Sexy femme fatale, she stands for all
the good and bad aspects of women
•Had an affair with Ares while married
to Hephaestus (seems to love Ares)
•This produced 3 sons: Eros
(love); Deimus (fear); Phobus
•Popular goddess: Goddess of sex &
reproduction, love
Eros vs Cupid
• The Greeks saw Eros as an malevolent, dangerous
young man
– He loved making mischief and playing tricks by making them fall
in love suddenly, esp. with inappropriate people
• The Romans saw Cupid as a cute pudgy baby
Goddesses: The Next Generation
• Athena
– Sprung from Zeus’
head (he had a headache)
fully formed
– Goddess of War (see
– Roman name:
– Virgin
– Known for her
wisdom &
– Powerful, impressive
& too scary to be
lusted after
Goddesses: The Next Generation
• Artemis
– Apollo’s twin
– Goddess of the
Hunt, loved
woods and wild
animals, the
– Roman name:
– Virgin