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Propaganda and Persuasive Techniques to use and not to use Propaganda Techniques Used to influence people to believe, buy, or do something. Name-Calling An attack on a person instead of an issue. Is this a good thing to use? Bandwagon Persuades the reader to do, think, or buy something because it is popular or because “everyone” is doing it. How well does this work? Red Herring An attempt to distract the reader with details not relevant to the argument. Does this make you sound like you know what you’re talking about? Testimonial Attempts to persuade the reader by using a famous person to endorse a product or idea Got Milk? Sweeping generalization (stereotyping) Makes an oversimplified statement about a group based on limited information. Avoid words such as always, everybody, never, and none. Circular Argument States a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument. This is just restating something in other words without offering proof. We need a new traffic light at the corner because it’s necessary. Either-Or Stating that there are only two possible alternatives (Either I get into the college of my dreams, or my life is ruined). Really? (Try not to use this!) Cause and Effect Assuming that because event B followed event A, A caused B. I flunked the test because Joe sat beside me instead of in front of me. Glittering Generality Using words linked to highly valued concepts. When these words are used, they demand approval without thinking, simply because such an important concept is involved. Honor, glory, love of country, freedom, democracy Transfer Linking something we respect and revere to something the person wants us to believe. The American Flag or even the Swastika What to Use? Ethos Pathos Logos Defense of a Claim: Support provided to mark an assertion as reasonable.