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Construction Technology
Applying Technology
Period 1
Construction Technology
► The
design and building of structures
► Some
structures have been so beautifully
designed that they are considered great
works of art and other structures have
become important historical or cultural
symbols while others have ended up as
► Something
that is constructed or built.
► Are made by joining parts to meet a certain need
or perform a certain task.
 Structural Member- building material used with
similar materials to make a structures frame
► Can
be natural or human-made
 Natural ex: spider web, birds nest, wasp nest,…
► The
design of any structure depends on its use
Construction Systems Model
•Designing the
•Preparing the site
•Tools/ Machines
•Laying the foundation
•Building the structure
•Impacts on
community and
•Comments from structures users or
•Accidents or disasters resulting from
defective materials or poor design
Who Designs Structures?
► Civil
Engineers- design and supervise the
building of structures that service the public
 Most work on roads, water supply, sewers, and some
public structures
► Structural
Engineers- civil engineers whose
work focuses more on the mechanics of loadbearing structures
► Architect- someone who designs buildings and
often over sees construction
Designing Structures
► On
large projects, structural engineers and
architects work together. The architect designs a
building, and the engineer determines what kind
of structural system is needed. The engineers
decide what sizes and types of columns and
beams are needed to make the structure stable.
They consider the forces that act on a structure as
well as some other questions to be considered:
► How
many vehicles or pedestrians will travel on the bridge daily
► How might a skyscraper be affected by high wind?
► What needs to be done to protect a structure being built in an
area with frequent earthquakes?
Forces on Structures
► Structures
must be designed to withstand
the forces that will act on them.
► Force- a push or a pull that transfers
energy to an object
► Forces can be external or internal
 External- come from outside the structure
 Internal- those that one part of the structure
exerts on another part. They are forces acting
within a structural material
Forces on Structures
Internal Forces
► Tension: stretches an object or even pulls it apart
► Compression:
Squeezing force
► Torsion:
► Shear:
Shortens an object or even crushes it.
Twist an object along its axis
Pushes adjacent parts of a material in opposite directions
Forces on Structures
External Forces
A load is an external force acting on an
 A load on a structure can be any kind of weight
 Can also be force caused by pressure from wind
or water
► Two
types of loads:
 Static
 Dynamic
Static Load
► Also
known as a “dead load”
► Changes slowly or not at all
► The materials used to build a structure are
part of this load
 ex: bricks in a building, twigs in a birds nest,
shingles on a roof
Dynamic Loads
► Also
known as “live loads”
► These loads move or change
 Ex: cars or people crossing a bridge, oil flowing
through a pipeline, or wind blowing on a
Types of Construction Projects
► Each
construction project falls into one of
the major types of construction:
Public Works
Residential Construction
► Building
of structures in which people live.
 Most of these structures are single-family, private
homes, condo’s or even multi-family units or
► Most
of this construction is done by fairly small
construction companies.
► Stick Construction- small and lighter pieces of
wood are assembled into a framework which is
then covered with other building materials to
make the walls, floors, and roof.
 method started many years ago and still greatly used
Industrial Construction
► The
building of manufacturing plants and
other industrial structures.
 Usually planned by specialized engineering firms
and usually built by large construction firms that
have many employees.
Commercial Construction
► Building
structures that are used for business.
 Supermarkets, malls, restaurants, office buildings, and
► Usually
large scale construction projects that
involve millions of dollars and many workers.
► Building materials and techniques used in
commercial and industrial construction are
somewhat different from those in residential
 These structures often have steel frames and many
concrete parts
Public Works Construction
► Building
structures intended for public use or
 Includes large projects
► Dams
► Highways
► Bridges
► Tunnels
► Hospitals
► Schools
► Airports
► Sewer
Types of Structures
► Buildings
 Usually defined as a structure with a roof and
 May be temporary or permanent
► Roads
 Highways, streets, and other roadways
 Highways- major roads through and around
cities. Usually vary in width from 2-8 lanes
 Interstates HW- pass thru more than 1 state
Types of Structures
► Tunnels
 Underground passageway built to allow people,
vehicle or materials to pass through or under an
can be built to carry water around a dam
 Three types of tunnels
dangerous to build, constructed in soil or sand
►Immersed- pre-manf. sections that are floated to site
then sunk into trenches and all connected together
►Rock- blasted or drilled through rock with machines
Types of Structures
► Dams
 Structure placed across a body of water to
control or block its flow
that collects behind a dam is called a reservoir
 Usually built from earth, concrete, steel,
masonry, or wood but normally a combination
of materials is used.
 Main reason for dams is to provide a
dependable water supply for nearby
Types of Structures
► Canals
 Artificial waterways built for irrigation or
► Bridges
 Built to allow people and vehicles and anything
else to pass over something else
built over water, valleys, highways, or
railroad tracks