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Ancient Israel is the birthplace
of the 3 great monotheistic
religions of the world:
Judaism, Christianity and
Ancient Israel dates back
approximately 4000 years to
the books of the Old
Great patriarchs of Judaism:
Abraham, Jacob, Moses,
Hebrews, Israelites, Jews,
Semites: have all undergone
persecution throughout
history; from Babylonian
Captivity, Exodus, Diaspora,
Spanish Inquisition, Holocaust
Hebrew means “From the other
side of the river”- name given to
Abraham and his followers
Israelites: Abraham’s grandson
Jacob renamed Israel which means
“he who has wrestled with God”.
His descendants were called
Jews: named after Jacob’s son
Judah, ancient father of tribe of
King David’s dynasty
Abraham’s Journeys
Abraham’s Geneaology
12 Arabian
12 Tribes of
Abraham is promised by Yahweh that his descendants shall
be as many as the stars in heaven .
Ancient Palestine
grandson Jacob
took name “Israel”
which means “God
ruled”; the
Israelites tribes
were named for
his sons and
(Joseph’s kids)
Israel had 2 wives
– one of whom he
loved more! She
had 2 kids – Joseph
& Benjamin
Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers.
He rose to become the 2nd in command to the
When famine came, his brothers came to Egypt to
get food.
The Pharaoh let Joseph move all of his family into
That Pharaoh died, Joseph’s family grew, and they
were enslaved.
Land of Goshen, Egypt
“Prince of Egypt”
“Shepherd of His
An illustrated story of
Moses found our he was really a Hebrew, and killed an
Egyptian who was mistreating a Hebrew slave; then he
fled Egypt to escape punishment;
He became a shepherd and lived away from Egypt for
some time; then received a revelationsfrom Yahweh
who appeared as a burning bush; Yahweh told him to
go free the Hebrews from Egypt; Yahweh sent 10
plagues on Egypt,
End of 13th century BCE- Moses led the Israelites out of
bondage in Egypt during Rames II reign called the
EXODUS – parting of the Red Sea
Moses led the 12 Tribes of Israel to Mount Sinai where
Yahweh gave him the 10 Commandments, uniting the
Hebrews under one God - Yahweh
Moses and Hebrews searched for the “Promised Land” or
the land of milk and honey, however they wandered in
the desert for 40 years as punishment for disobeying
The Exodus
Moses and the 10
A new “covenant”
with Yahweh
Yahweh’s “Covenant” With His
 The first 5 books
of the Hebrew
 The most sacred
text in the Jewish
religious tradition.
The Torah
King David’s Empire
Recreation of Ancient
King Solomon’s Temple
Floor Plan
The First Temple
Inside the Temple
The Arc
of the
The Temple Mount, Jerusalem
Solomon’s Temple Wall: The “Wailing” Wall
After the death of
Solomon, Kingdom of
Israel split into two
(north= Israel; south=
Israel was conquered by
Assyrians in 722 BCE
and the scattered people
were known as the
‘Lost Tribes of Israel’
Judah was eventually
destroyed by Babylon in
586 BCE and inhabitants
were held in captivity
(called the Exile or
Babylonian Captivity)
Emergence of
synagogues and rabbis
during Exile
Released by Persians in
538 BCE and returned to
Jerusalem to rebuild
Israelites in Captivity
Diaspora is a Greek word meaning “sowing of seed” or “dispersal”
which refers to Jewish population living outside of Israel
In 332 BCE, Jewish people in fell under Hellenization (Greek culture) as
Alexander the Great conquered Persia, Egypt and India
164 BCE, group of Jews called the Maccabees revolted against Greek rule,
took control of Jerusalem and rededicated the Temple to God
64 BCE, Jerusalem fell to Romans and the Kingdom of Judah became one
of the provinces of the Roman Empire (Judea). The people living there
were called Judeans, and it is from this word that we get the word Jew
In 66 CE the people of Judea revolted against Rome. This uprising was
crushed and the temple was destroyed for a second time in 70 CE
Despite the dispersion of Jewish people throughout Europe after 70 CE,
their culture and religious beliefs have been by far the most influential of
all the ancient cultures of the Near East
Jews at the wailing wall in Jerusalem
Jerusalem: Reading the
Covenant = formal agreement
between Hebrews and God
(Yahweh); Hebrews worshipped
God and only God, and in return,
they would be God’s Chosen
People and given Canaan as the
Promised Land
Spiritual ideas profoundly
influenced Western culture,
morality, ethics and conduct
Three of the world’s most
dominant religions: Judaism,
Christianity and Islam all derive
their roots from the spiritual
beliefs of the Ancient Israelites