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Transcript
NUR 101: Body Structure and
Function
Module A: The Structure and
Function of the Body
Terms associated with structure
and function of the body
 Anatomy is the study of the structure of
an organism and the relationship of its
parts.
 Physiology is the study of the functions
of living organisms and their parts.
Organizational levels of the
body
 Cells
 Tissue
 Organs
 Systems
Terms associated with structure
and function of the body
 Anatomical position- The body is in an
erect or standing posture with the arms at
the sides and the palms are forward. The
head and feet also point forward.
 Supine or prone- In the supine position
the body is lying face upward and in the
prone position the body is lying face
down
Relationship of anatomical
directions to the body





Superior
Inferior
Anterior
Posterior
Medial





Lateral
Proximal
Distal
Superficial
Deep
Planes or body sections




Sagittal
Midsagittal
Frontal
Transverse
Ventral Body Cavity
Components

1.
2.
1.
2.
THORACTIC CAVITY includes:
Mediastinum – midportion of thoracic cavity; heart trachea, and
blood vessels
Pleural cavities – right lung located in the right pleural cavity
and the left lung in the left pleural cavity
ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY includes:
Abdominal cavity- Liver, gallbladder ,stomach, spleen,
pancreas, small intestine, parts of large intestine
Pelvic cavity- lower colon (sigmoid), rectum, urinary bladder,
reproductive organs
Dorsal Body Cavity
Components
1. CRANIAL CAVITY includes:
The space inside the skull which
contains the brain
2. SPINAL CAVITY includes:
The space inside the spinal column
which contains the spinal cord
ABDOMINOPELVIC
REGIONS
1.
2.
3.
Upper abdominopelvic regions : right and left
hypochondriac region, and the epigastric region lie
above an imaginary line across the abdomen at the
level of the ninth rib cartilages
Middle regions: right and left lumbar region, and the
umbilical region lie below an imaginary line across
the abdomen at the level of the top of the hip bones.
Lower regions: right and left iliac regions and the
hypogastric region lie below an imaginary line across
the abdomen at the level of the top of the hip bones
BODY REGIONS
 AXIAL- The axial portion of the body
consists of the head, neck and torso or
trunk.
 APPENDICULAR- The appendicular
portion consists of the upper and lower
extremities.
Balance of Body
Functions
1. HOMEOSTASIS-is the relative constancy of
the internal environment. The activity of the
cells and external disturbances threaten
internal stability (homeostasis) ,the body
must work to maintain or restore stability. To
accomplish self-regulation, a highly complex
and integrated communication control system
is utilized. The control system is called a
feedback loop.
Balance of Body
Functions
 FEEDBACK LOOPS : a highly complex
and integrated communication control
network, classified as negative or
positive; negative feedback loops are
the most important and numerous
homeostatic control mechanisms.