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Transcript
Before Reading
1. Listen and Answer
2. History of English
3. Winston Churchill
4. Julius Caesar
5. Viking
6. Norman
7. William Caxton
8. Otto Jespersen
9. Renaissance
Listen and Answer
Listen to the recording two or three times and then think over
the following questions.
1.What is the passage about?
English is a great language, but it is also a crazy language.
2.Can you give one or two examples to illustrate the
messiness of the English language?
Yes. For example, the meaning of “your house burns up”
is the same as that of “your house burns down”, or “you
fill in a form” is the same as “you fill out a form” .
II
■
Listen and Answer
Listen and Answer
Listen and Answer
Listen to the recording two or three times and then think over
the following questions.
3. Are you sure of all the idiomatic usages mentioned in the
recorded passage?
Some of the more confusing usages are explained here:
1) ship by truck / send cargo by ship:
The word “ship” can be used either as a verb or as a noun.
The first “ship” means “send”, the second one “a large boat”.
2) noses that run / feet that smells:
The first expression refers to “have a running nose” (流鼻涕),
and the second refers to “have smelly feet” (脚臭).
Listen and Answer
Listen to the recording two or three times and then think over
the following questions.
3. Are you sure of all the idiomatic usages mentioned in the
recorded passage?
Some of the more confusing usages are explained here:
3) a slim/fat chance: a remote possibility
4) a wise guy: (derogatory) a person who pretends to be much
wiser than he/she really is
a wise man: (commendatory) a really wise person
5) overlook: fail to see or notice, pay no attention to
oversee: watch; observe; supervise
Listen and Answer
Listen to the recording two or three times and then think over
the following questions.
3. Are you sure of all the idiomatic usages mentioned in the
recorded passage?
Some of the more confusing usages are explained here:
extremely hot/cold
6) hot /cold as hell:
7) burn up:
catch fire and flare up
burn down:
be destroyed by fire
8) fill in a form/fill out a form: write all the necessary information
on a form
Listen and Answer
Listen to the recording two or three times and then think over
the following questions.
3. Are you sure of all the idiomatic usages mentioned in the
recorded passage?
Some of the more confusing usages are explained here:
9) go off:
start an action, usually accompanied by a great noise
go on:
continue doing something
10) when stars are out:
when stars appear in the sky
when lights are out:
11) wind up a watch:
wind up a speech:
when lights are turned off
tighten the spring of a watch
end a speech
History of English
The Root of English
English began as a west Germanic language which
was brought to England by the Saxons around 400 A.D. Old
English was the spoken and written language of England
between 400 and 1100 A.D. Many words used today come
from Old English, including man, woman, king, mother, etc.
But Old English was very different from modern English and
only a few words can be easily recognized. In the 9th and
10th centuries, when Vikings invaded England, Old Norse
words, e.g. sky, take and get and many place names,
entered the language.
II
■
The Root of English
From the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 12th century
English was replaced as the official language by Norman French,
though English was still used by the lower classes. English from
about 1300 to 1500 is known as Middle English. It was influenced
by French and also Latin in vocabulary and pronunciation. French
brought many words connected with government, e.g. sovereign,
royal, court, legal and government itself. Latin was the language of
religion and learning and gave to English words such as minister,
angel, master, school and grammar. Literature began again to be
written in English during this period. One of the most famous
Middle English works is Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales.
II
■
The Development of Modern English
Modern English developed from the Middle English dialect of
the East Midlands and was influenced by the English used in
London, where a printing press was set up by William Caxton in
1476. English changed a great deal from this time until the end of
the 18th century. During the Renaissance, many words were
introduced from Greek and Latin to express new ideas, especially
in science, medicine and philosophy. They included physics,
species, architecture, encyclopedia and hypothesis. In the 16th
century several versions of the Bible helped bring written English to
ordinary people. The Elizabethan period is also famous for its
drama, and Shakespeare’s plays were seen by many people.
II
■
The Development of Modern English
The development of printing helped establish
standards of spelling and grammar, but there remained a
lot of variation. Samuel Johnson’s A Dictionary of the
English Language (1755) was the first authoritative
treatment of English. It defined about 40,000 words and
gave examples of their use.
II
■
The Development of Modern English
By the 18th century American English was
established and developing independently from British
English. After colonists arrived in the US new words began
to be added from Native American languages, and from
French and Spanish. In 1783, soon after Johnson’s
dictionary was published, Noah Webster’s The Elementary
Spelling Book was published in the US. At first it used
Johnson’s spellings, but later editions contained many of
what have come to be known as American spellings, e.g.
harbor and favorite.
II
■
20th Century English
During the 19th and early 20th centuries many
dictionaries and books about language were published.
New words are still being added to English from other
languages, including Chinese (feng shui) and Japanese
(karaoke). Existing words gain new senses, and new
expressions spread quickly through television and the
Internet.
II
■
20th Century English
English is now an international language and is used as
a means of communication between people from many
countries. As a result the influences on the English
language are wider than ever and it is possible that World
English will move away from using a British or American
standard and establish its own international identity.
II
■
Winston Churchill
1. A Brief Introduction to Winston Churchill
2. Chronology of Winston Churchill
A Brief Introduction to Winston Churchill
As a politician, Winston Churchill is remembered as one
of Britain’s greatest statesmen. He was the son of the
Conservative politician Lord Randolph Churchill and his
American wife Jennie. As a young man he served as a
soldier in India and Egypt, and as a journalist in South
Africa, before entering politics. Churchill became Prime
Minister and Minister of Defence in 1940. His radio
speeches during World War II gave the British people a
strong determination to win the war, especially at times
of great crisis.
A Brief Introduction to Winston Churchill
Examples of Churchill’s phrases still often quoted
today are “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil,
tears and sweat”, and “This was their finest hour”.
The Conservative Party led by Churchill lost the
election of 1945, but he became Prime Minister
again from 1951 to 1955 when he retired, aged 80.
When he died in Jan 1965 he was given a state
funeral.
Chronology of Winston Churchill
November
30, 1874
Born Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill at Blenheim
Palace, Woodstock, near Oxford.
October 1,
1911
Appointed First Lord of the Admiralty in Liberal
government.
April 30,
1915
Failure of the Dardanelles Expedition, in World War I,
led to his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty.
November 6, Baldwin named him Chancellor of the Exchequer.
1924
Chronology of Winston Churchill
May 10,
1940
July 1945
April 24,
1953
December
10, 1953
Appointed to head wartime coalition government.
Lost general election.
Knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
Awarded Nobel prize for literature in recognition of
“historical works and biographies as well as his brilliant
speeches.”
January 24, Died in London; given a state funeral; buried in the
1965
churchyard at Bladon, near Blenheim.
Julius Caesar (100~44 BC)
Julius Caesar was the bestknown of all the ancient Roman
leaders, and the first one to
land in Britain with an army.
He did this twice, in 55 and
54 BC, although Britain did not
become part of the Roman
Empire until nearly a hundred
years later.
Viking
Viking was a member of a
people from Scandinavia who
attacked parts of northern and
western Europe, including Britain
and Ireland, in the 8th to 11th
centuries. In Britain they were
also known as Norsemen. They
settled on the Scottish islands and in areas of eastern
England, and the Danish King Canute ruled England from
1016. The Vikings were feared as violent and cruel, but they
were also noted for their skill in building ships and as sailors.
They had an important influence on English culture and the
English language.
Norman
Norman refers to any of the people from Normandy
in northern France who settled in England after their
leader William defeated the English king at the Battle of
Hastings in 1066.
Norman
The Normans took control of the
country, a process known as the
Norman Conquest. They used many of
the existing Anglo-Saxon methods of
government of the state and the church,
but added important aspects of their
own and made government much more effective. The
language of government became first Latin, and then
Norman French, and this caused many new words to be
added to the existing English language.
William Caxton ( c.1422~c.1491)
William Caxton was the man who set up the first printing
firm in Britain. He printed his first book in 1474. By printing
books in English, Caxton had a strong influence on the
spelling and development of the language. Many of the books
he published were French stories which he translated himself.
Otto Jespersen (1860~1943)
Otto Jespersen was a Danish
philologist,
grammarian,
and
educationist. He promoted the use
of the “direct method” in language
teaching with the publication of his
theoretical work How to Teach a
Foreign Language (1904). Other
books include his seven-volume
Modern
English
Grammar
(1909~1949).
Renaissance
II
■
Global Reading
GR-main
1. Part Division of the Text
2. Further Understanding
For Part 1 Pair Discussion
For Part 2 English -- the Sea of Language
For Part 3 Questions and Answers
GR1
Part Division of the Text
Parts
Lines
1
1~17
2
3
18~89
90~102
Main Ideas
Massive borrowing from other languages
is a major feature of the English language.
Tells about the history of the English
language from the Indo-European parent
language to modern English.
Tolerance, love of freedom, and respect for
the rights of others -- these qualities in the
English-speaking people explain the richness
of their language.
GR2_Pair Discussion 1
Pair Discussion
Look at the picture below. Answer these questions with a partner.
1. What are differences between English
and French in borrowing foreign words?
English has a vocabulary of about
one million words while French has
only about 75,000 words.
English has borrowed a lot of words from other languages while
French hasn't. And the French government even tries to ban
words from English.
GR2_Pair Discussion 2
Pair Discussion
Look at the picture below. Answer these questions with a partner.
2. What can we infer from the invention
of a French word “balladeer”?
In borrowing foreign words, English
people are open-minded while
French people are conservative.
We know the reason why English has become the first truly
global language.
GR2_Pair Discussion 3
Pair Discussion
Look at the picture below. Answer these questions with a partner.
3. How did the word “Walkman” come
into being?
The Japanese put two simple
English words together to name their
product.
English -- the Sea of Language
eye
angel
sky
royal
kingly
capsule
thermometer
habitual
mahjong
water
Questions and Answers
1. Who is Otto Jespersen?
He is a Danish scholar.
2. According to Otto Jespersen, what causes English to
become what it is?
The fact that English people have been for centuries
great respecters of the liberties of each individual and
that everybody has been free to strike out new paths
for himself.
3. What is the English language in the author’s opinion?
English is the tongue of the common man.
After Reading
1. Useful Expressions
2. Listening Comprehension
Brainstorm
Listen and Answer
3. Synonyms
4. Body Language
5. Graph Writing
6. Talk about the Pictures
7. Proverbs and Quotations
Useful Expressions
1. 排行榜
a hit parade
2. 严格地说
strictly speaking
3. 对我们真正至关重要的事
the things that really matter
to us
4. 发表演说
make a speech
5.为了加强效果
for effect
Useful Expressions
6.系统的研究
a systematic study
7.起源于
descend from
8.提出
come up with
9.向西漂泊
drift west
10.留传给我们
pass on to us
Useful Expressions
11.日子过得开心
enjoy oneself
12.抚养孩子
rear/raise a child
13.平民百姓
common people
14.印刷机
a printing press
15.大量新思想
a wealth of new thinking
Useful Expressions
16.欧洲文艺复兴
the European Renaissance
17.失控
be out of control
18.付诸实施
put into practice
19.个人自由的崇尚者
a respecter of the liberties
of each individual
20.开拓新路
strike out new paths
Useful Expressions
21.培育了……的准则
nourish the principles of …
22.人权
the rights of man
23.知识精英
an intellectual elite
Brainstorm
Work in groups and brainstorm as many words as possible that
are related to the topic -- the Chinese Language.
Listen and Answer
Listen to the passage and answer the following questions.
1. What does the Chinese language usually refer to?
It refers to the standard language and its dialects.
2. What is the percentage of the Han nationality in the total
population?
93.3%.
3. Why do we say the Chinese language is very important in
the world?
Because it is one of the five working languages in the
United Nations.
II
■
Chinese Language -- Our Mother Tongue
The Chinese language usually refers to the standard language
and its dialects used by the Han nationality which makes up 93.3%
of the total population. Most of the minority nationalities in China
have their own languages. Both numerically (从数量上来讲) and in
the extent of its distribution, Chinese is the most important language
in China and also one of the five official working languages of the
United Nations. It is also one of the richest and highly developed
languages in the world.
Chinese is also spoken by many overseas Chinese: it is the
common language of more than 10 million overseas Chinese and
persons of Chinese descent in Southeast Asia alone. At present,
more than one billion people, approximately 1/5 of the world’s
population, speak Chinese as their mother tongue.
A written form of the language was developed as early as 6,000
years ago. From the point of view of its origin, it belongs to the SinoTibetan languages family(汉藏语系,包括汉语、西藏语、缅甸语等).
Listen and Answer
Listen to the passage and answer the following questions.
4. How many overseas Chinese and persons of Chinese
decent in Southeast Asia speak the Chinese language?
More than 10 million.
5. According to this passage, what was the world’s
population when the passage was written?
About 5 billion.
6. How long has the Chinese language been spoken?
More than 6,000 years.
II
■
Chinese Language -- Our Mother Tongue
The Chinese language usually refers to the standard language
and its dialects used by the Han nationality which makes up 93.3%
of the total population. Most of the minority nationalities in China
have their own languages. Both numerically (从数量上来讲) and in
the extent of its distribution, Chinese is the most important language
in China and also one of the five official working languages of the
United Nations. It is also one of the richest and highly developed
languages in the world.
Chinese is also spoken by many overseas Chinese: it is the
common language of more than 10 million overseas Chinese and
persons of Chinese descent in Southeast Asia alone. At present,
more than one billion people, approximately 1/5 of the world’s
population, speak Chinese as their mother tongue.
A written form of the language was developed as early as 6,000
years ago. From the point of view of its origin, it belongs to the SinoTibetan language family (汉藏语系, 包括汉语、西藏语、缅甸语等).
Synonyms
Choose suitable words from the given pairs to complete the following
sentences and try to figure out the differences in meaning.
Some words, like wish and want, raise and rear, royal, kingly and
sovereign, come very close in meaning but are not
interchangeable in some contexts.
1. want/wish
a) I _______ you both a very pleasant journey.
b) Ann, I am sorry. I _______ I had never said that to you.
c) My parents _______ me to give you their best regards.
d) We do not ___________ to waste our money on such worthless
things.
Synonyms
Choose suitable words from the given pairs to complete the following
sentences and try to figure out the differences in meaning.
Some words, like wish and want, raise and rear, royal, kingly and
sovereign, come very close in meaning but are not
interchangeable in some contexts.
2. skin/hide
a) This is the best lotion I've ever known for _______ care.
b) "I'm sorry I called you a pig." "My _________ is thick enough; it
didn't bother me."
c) This pair of boots is made of buffalo _______. They are very
durable.
d) I don't need a knife; I can peel the ______ off with my fingers.
Synonyms
Choose suitable words from the given pairs to complete the following
sentences and try to figure out the differences in meaning.
Some words, like wish and want, raise and rear, royal, kingly and
sovereign, come very close in meaning but are not
interchangeable in some contexts.
3. raise/rear
a) The male bird helps the female to _________ the young.
b) You cannot ________ corn here. The climate is not right for it.
c) The couple agreed that to__________ the children properly they
need two incomes.
d) He worked hard to ______ himself from poverty.
Synonyms
Choose suitable words from the given pairs to complete the following
sentences and try to figure out the differences in meaning.
Some words, like wish and want, raise and rear, royal, kingly and
sovereign, come very close in meaning but are not
interchangeable in some contexts.
4. royal/kingly/sovereign
a) The British _______ family has been the focus of media
attention in recent weeks.
b) The young man's __________ bearing (仪态) has won him
many admirers.
c) When did India gain its independence and become a __________
state?
d) With his health restored, he is now ready to resume his
__________ duties.
Body Language
In this part, you can see four pictures and each picture
shows the different meanings of body language in China
and U.S. At the same time, you can also see the different
phrases or expressions showing the meanings of the
pictures. You’re required to match the pictures.
Body Language
No.1
No.2
No.3
No.4
A considered impolite; making people embarrassed, self-conscious
B applauding oneself; improper, immodest
C curiosity, sometimes surprise
D calling for silence
E thank you; mutual positive feelings
F giving comfort, consolation or encouragement; also showing affection
G disapproval, hissing(用嘘声责骂)
H patting the head of children to show affection; patting the head of a
teenager or adult causing displeasure
Meaning in China
No.1 (
)
No.3 (
No.2 (
)
No.4 (
Meaning in U. S.
)
)
No.1 (
)
No.3 (
No.2 (
)
No.4 (
)
)
Graph Writing
1. An example
2. Some useful expressions
in graph writing
3. Homework
An example
Write a composition entitled “Leading Causes of Road Accidents in
China”. The composition should be based on the following graph.
Percentage
of Accidents
Motor Vehicles Bicycles Pedestrians Others
Your composition should be in three paragraphs:
An example
Write a composition entitled “Leading Causes of Road Accidents in
China”. The composition should be based on the following graph.
1) introduce the causes;
2) report the information given in the graph;
3) conclude the composition by giving some suggestions.
Percentage
of Accidents
Motor Vehicles Bicycles Pedestrians Others
Your composition should be in three paragraphs:
Leading Causes of Road Accidents in China
With the development of the cities, the road accident is
becoming a more and more serious problem in China. The
information represented in the graph, which depicts the
leading causes of road accidents in China, indicates that
most accidents are caused by motor vehicles, bicycles, and
pedestrians.
In the graph we can clearly see that motor vehicles are
responsible for the largest part of road accidents, namely
about 50% of them. Bicycles account for 35% of the
accidents and pedestrians caused nearly 10%. These
statistics indicate that motor vehicles have to some extent
become a threat to the security of whole society, which
endangers people’s lives.
Leading Causes of Road Accidents in China
Since we know that motor vehicles are the leading cause
of road accidents in China, we should take some measures
to improve the situation. First, we should make a law to
punish any violators of traffic regulations. Then, cyclists
should use hand signals to warn other road users of their
intentions. Last but not least, the department concerned
should educate ordinary people to walk on a zebra crossing
or overpass when they cross a street. All in all, it’s time for us
to attach great importance to this problem.
Some useful expressions in graph writing
1) The picture shows…
2) This table shows the differences between…
3) The diagram represents…
4) The chart above indicates…
5) The information represented in the graph indicates…
6) As can be seen from the chart, …
7) As is shown in the bar graph, there were…
8) From the diagram it can be seen clearly that…
9) From these figures one can easily see that…
10) According to the graph given above, we can see that…
11) This is an illustration of…/a typical example of…
12) There was a great/slight increase/rise.
13) There has been a sudden/slow/rapid fall/drop…
14) Take the above chart as an example,…
Homework
Write a composition entitled “Causes of Fires” based on
the following graph.
Number
of Fires
Smoking
Defective
Insulation
Children Playing
With Matches
Your composition should be in three paragraphs:
Homework
Write a composition entitled “Causes of Fire” based on the
following graph.
1) introduce the causes;
2) report the information given in the graph;
number
3) conclude thesmoking
composition by giving some suggestions.
defective
children playing
of fire
insulation
with matches
Your composition should be in three paragraphs:
Causes of Fires
In spite of all the progress that mankind has made over
years, fire continues to be a terrible killer in our modern
society. From the graph, which depicts the leading causes
of fires, we can see that most fires are caused by smoking,
defective insulation and children playing with matches.
The graph makes it clear that smoking was responsible
for most of the fires, namely about 500 of them. Defective
insulation resulted in more than 200 fires and children
playing with matches caused nearly 100 fires. These
results indicate that smoking can thus be regarded as the
enemy of the whole society, especially when the public
interest is taken into consideration.
Causes of Fires
From the above, we can see that smoking is the leading
cause of fires. Therefore we should remind smokers to pay
close attention to their cigarette ends when they smoke. On
the other hand, we should also educate our children,
warning them of the danger of playing with matches. It’s
time for us to take measures to prevent dangerous fires.
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
1. Speech is silver, silence is gold.
雄辩是银,沉默是金。
2. Speech is the index/picture of the mind.
言为心声。
3. Speech shows what a man is.
听其言而知其人。
Proverbs and Quotations
4. A foreign language is a weapon in the struggle of life.
-- Karl Marx, German philosopher
外国语是人生斗争的武器。
-- 德国哲学家
K. 马克思
5. Grammar must be learned through language, and not
language through grammar.
-- Johann G. Herdor, German philosopher
必须从语言中学习语法,而不是从语法中学习语言。
-- 德国哲学家 J.G. 赫尔德
Proverbs and Quotations
6. Speech is a mirror of soul; as a man speaks, so is he.
-- Ephraem Syrus, American writer
语言是心灵的镜子;一个人只要说话,他说的话就是他心灵的
镜子。
-- 美国作家 E.塞拉斯
THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
The story of our English language is typically one of
massive stealing from other languages. That is why English
today has an estimated vocabulary of over one million
words, while other major languages have far fewer.
French, for example, has only about 75,000 words, and
that includes English expressions like snack bar and hit
parade. The French, however, do not like borrowing foreign
words because they think it corrupts their language.
Sentence
Word
The government tries to ban words from English and declares
that Walkman is not desirable; so they
invent a word, balladeur, which French
kids are supposed to say instead -but they don't.
Walkman is fascinating because it
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two
simple English words together to name their product. That
doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is
the glorious messiness of English.
Sentence
Word
That happy tolerance, that willingness to accept words from
anywhere, explains the richness of English and why it has
become, to a very real extent, the first truly global language.
How did the language of a small island off the coast of
Europe become the language of the planet -- more widely
spoken and written than any other has ever been? The
history of English is present in the first words a child learns
about identity (I, me, you); possession (mine, yours); the
body (eye, nose, mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities
(food, water). These words all come from Old English or
Anglo-Saxon English, the core of our language.
Sentence
Word
Usually short and direct, these are words we still use today
for the things that really matter to us.
Great speakers often use Old
English to arouse our emotions.
For example, during World War II,
Winston Churchill made this
speech, stirring the courage of his
people against Hitler’s armies
positioned to cross the English Channel: “ We shall fight
on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we
shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in
the hills. We shall never surrender.”
Sentence
Word
Virtually every one of those words came from Old
English, except the last -- surrender, which came from
Norman French. Churchill could have said, “We shall never
give in,” but it is one of the lovely -- and powerful -opportunities of English that a writer can mix, for effect,
different words from different backgrounds. Yet there is
something direct to the heart that speaks to us from the
earliest words in our language.
When Julius Caesar invaded
Britain in 55 B.C., English did not
exist. The Celts, who inhabited the
land, spoke languages that survive
today mainly as Welsh. Where those
languages came from is still a mystery, but there is a theory.
Sentence
Word
Two centuries ago an English judge in India noticed that
several words in Sanskrit closely resembled some words in
Greek and Latin. A systematic study revealed that many
modern languages descended from a common parent
language, lost to us because nothing was written down.
Identifying similar words, linguists have come up with
what they call an Indo-European parent language, spoken
until 3500 to 2000 B.C. These people had common words
for snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some
scholars assume they lived somewhere in north-central
Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some
established the languages of India and Pakistan, and
others drifted west toward the gentler climates of Europe.
Sentence
Word
Some who made the earliest move westward became known
as the Celts, whom Caesar’s armies found in Britain.
New words came with the Germanic tribes -- the Angles,
the Saxons, etc. -- that slipped across the North Sea to
settle in Britain in the 5th century. Together they formed what
we call Anglo-Saxon society.
The Anglo-Saxons passed on to us their farming
vocabulary, including sheep, ox, earth, wood, field and work.
They must have also enjoyed
themselves because they gave us the
word laughter.
Sentence
Word
The next big influence on English was
Christianity. It enriched the Anglo-Saxon
vocabulary with some 400 to 500 words
from Greek and Latin, including angel,
disciple and martyr.
Then into this relatively peaceful land came the Vikings
from Scandinavia. They also brought to English many
words that begin with sk, like sky and skirt. But Old Norse
and English both survived, and so you can rear a child
(English) or raise a child (Norse). Other such pairs survive:
wish and want, craft and skill, hide and skin. Each such
addition gave English more richness, more variety.
Sentence
Word
Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in 1066, when
the Normans conquered England. The
country now had three languages: French
for the nobles, Latin for the churches and
English for the common people. With
three languages competing, there were
sometimes different terms for the same thing. For example,
Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans,
royal and sovereign entered the language as alternatives.
The extraordinary thing was that French did not replace
English. Over three centuries English gradually swallowed
French, and by the end of the 15th century what had
developed was a modified, greatly enriched language -Middle English -- with about 10,000 “borrowed” French
words.
Sentence
Word
Around 1476 William Caxton set up a printing press in
England and started a communications revolution. Printing
brought into English the wealth of new thinking that sprang
from the European Renaissance. Translations of Greek
and Roman classics were poured onto the printed page,
and with them thousands of Latin words like capsule and
habitual, and Greek words like
catastrophe and thermometer. Today
we still borrow from Latin and Greek to
name new inventions, like video,
television and cyberspace.
Sentence
Word
As settlers landed in North
America and established the United
States, English found itself with two
sources -- American and British.
Scholars in Britain worried that the
language was out of control, and
some wanted to set up an academy to decide which words
were proper and which were not. Fortunately their idea has
never been put into practice.
That tolerance for change also represents deeply rooted
ideas of freedom.
Sentence
Word
Danish scholar Otto Jespersen wrote in 1905, “The English
language would not have been what it is if the English had
not been for centuries great respecters of the liberties of
each individual and if everybody had not been free to strike
out new paths for himself.”
I like that idea. Consider that the same cultural soil
producing the English language also nourished the great
principles of freedom and rights of man in the modern world.
The first shoots sprang up in England, and they grew
stronger in America. The English-speaking peoples have
defeated all efforts to build fences around their language.
Sentence
Word
Indeed, the English language is not the special
preserve of grammarians, language police, teachers,
writers or the intellectual elite. English is, and always has
been, the tongue of the common man.
Sentence
Word
THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
The story of our English language is typically one of
massive stealing from other languages. That is why English
today has an estimated vocabulary of over one million
words, while other major languages have far fewer.
French, for example, has only about 75,000 words, and
that includes English expressions like snack bar and hit
parade. The French, however, do not like borrowing foreign
words because they think it corrupts their language.
Sentence
Word
THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
corrupt: vt.
The
1) cause errors to appear
in
story of our English language is typically one of
massive
stealing
from other
languages. That is why English
The Academy ruled
that such
foreign expressions
were
not permitted, as they corrupted the language.
today has an estimated vocabulary of over one million
Has Japanese
been while
corrupted
by the
introduction
words,
other
major
languages have far fewer.
of foreign words?
French, for example, has only about 75,000 words, and
2) cause to act dishonestly in return for personal gains
that includes English expressions like snack bar and hit
To our great surprise, the former mayor turned out to have
parade.
The
French,
do not like borrowing foreign
been corrupted by
the desire
for money
and however,
power.
words
because they
it corrupts their language.
To gain more profits,
the businessman
triedthink
every means
to corrupt the officials in the local government.
Sentence
Word
THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
1) Translate the title into Chinese.
英语中绚丽多彩的杂乱无章现象.
The story of our English language is typically one of
2) What kind of rhetorical
device
is used infrom
the title?
massive
stealing
other languages. That is why English
The rhetorical device
herean
is called
oxymoronvocabulary
(矛盾
todayused
has
estimated
of over one million
修 饰 法 ). An oxymoron puts two contradictory terms
words,
while other
major to
languages
have far fewer.
together to puzzle
the reader,
luring him/her
pause
and explore why. Here
“Glorious”
a commendatory
French,
forisexample,
has (褒
only about 75,000 words, and
义的) term, while “Messiness” is derogatory(贬义的). As
that
like snack bar and hit
the reader reads
on, includes
he/she will English
know thatexpressions
English is
messy, but the parade.
messinessThe
reflects
some commendable
French,
however, do not like borrowing foreign
qualities of English, such as tolerance, the love of
words
because
think
it corrupts
their language.
freedom, and the
respect
for others’they
rights.
At this
point
the reader cannot but admire the author’s ingenuity.
Sentence
Word
The government tries to ban words from English and declares
that Walkman is not desirable; so they
French children are expected to say the
word a word, balladeur, which French
invent
“balladeur” instead of “Walkman” but they don’t say it.
kids are supposed to say instead -but they don't.
Walkman is fascinating because it
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two
simple English words together to name their product. That
doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is
the glorious messiness of English.
Paraphrase this part of the sentence.
Sentence
Word
The government tries to ban words from English and declares
that Walkman is not desirable; so they
What can we know about the author’s attitude towards
invent a word, balladeur, which French
English from this sentence?
kids are supposed to say instead -He thinks much of it.
but they don't.
Walkman is fascinating because it
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two
simple English words together to name their product. That
doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is
the glorious messiness of English.
Sentence
Word
The government tries to ban words from English and declares
that Walkman is not desirable; so they
invent a word, balladeur, which French
kids are supposed to say instead -but they don't.
Walkman is fascinating because it
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two
simple English words together to name their product. That
doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is
the glorious messiness of English.
Sentence
Word
ban:
The government
1. vt. forbid (sth.) officially
tries to ban words from English and declares
that Walkman is not desirable; so they
Pattern: ban sth.;
invent a word, balladeur, which French
ban sb. from sth./doing sth.
The local government will ban smoking in allkids
officesare
later supposed to say instead -this year.
but they don't.
Walkman
is fascinating because it
Tom was banned from driving for six months after
being
caught speeding again.
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
Lady Chatterley’swas
Loverinvented
was banned
was first
bywhen
the itJapanese
manufacturers who put two
published.
simple English words together to name their product. That
doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is
the glorious messiness of English.
Sentence
Word
CF: ban, forbid & prohibit
The government tries to ban words from English and declares
这三个词都可用作及物动词,表示“禁止”。
ban 语气最重,指权威机关“正式禁止”。一般含有“严厉谴责”
that Walkman is not desirable; so they
的意思,只能用于严重危害公众利益的事物。例如:
invent a word, balladeur, which French
kids are supposed to say instead -该条约禁止一切核试验。
but they don't.
forbid 是普通用词,可用于较细小的事物。例如:
Walkman is fascinating because it
He forbade his children sweets because he didn’t want
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
their teeth to be ruined.
他不许孩子们吃糖果,因为他不希望他们的牙齿蛀坏。
was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two
prohibit 指“(通过法律、法令或严正警告)禁止某些事物”,应
simple English words together to name their product. That
用范围较ban广。例如:
but it isdoes bother the French. Such is
In some countriesdoesn’t
the sale ofbother
alcoholicus,
beverages
prohibited.
the glorious messiness of English.
The treaty bans all nuclear tests.
在一些国家, 出售含酒精的饮料是被禁止的。
Sentence
Word
ban:
The government
tries
to ban
2. n. a prohibition imposed
by law or official
decree
(followed by on)
words from English and declares
that Walkman is not desirable; so they
The government is considering a total ban on cigarette
invent a word, balladeur, which French
advertising.
kids are supposed to say instead -The ban on human cloning is welcomed by most
but they don't.
countries in the world.
Walkman is fascinating because it
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two
simple English words together to name their product. That
doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is
the glorious messiness of English.
Sentence
Word
invent: vt.
triesbefore);
to ban
words
1) make or designThe
(sth. government
that has not existed
create
(sth.)
from English and declares
that Walkman is not desirable; so they
James Watt invented the steam engine.
invent a word, balladeur, which French
kids are supposed to say instead -Walter Hunt and Elias Hone invented
the sewing machine
but they don't.
Walkman
2) give (a name, reason, etc. that doesn’t exist or is
not true) is fascinating because it
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
All the characters in the novel are invented.
was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two
Standing still in the
teacher’s
office, the
boy tried
to invent to name their product. That
simple
English
words
together
a plausible excuse for his absence from class.
doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is
the glorious messiness of English.
Sentence
Word
CF: invent & discover
invent
The
government tries to ban words from English and declares
is not desirable; so they
Alexander Graham Bell invented the
invent a word, balladeur, which French
telephone.
kids are supposed to say instead -亚历山大•格雷厄姆•贝尔发明了电话。
but they don't.
discover
Walkman is fascinating because it
“发现”,发现的对象是本来就存在但不为人所知的东西,如
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
新的科学真理,新领域等。有时也可泛指“发现”、“认识到”
某种情况。例如:was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two
The planet Pluto was
discovered
in 1930.
simple
English
words together to name their product. That
doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is
冥王星是在1930年被发现的。
the glorious messiness of English.
“发明”,发明的对象是以前没有的新东西,如:工具、手段或方
法,这不仅是认识问题,还是实践问题。例如:
that Walkman
Sentence
Word
fascinating: adj. of great interest or attraction
The government tries to ban words from English and declares
Walkman is not desirable; so they
invent a word, balladeur, which French
我觉得有关克隆的讨论很有吸引力。
kids are supposed to say instead -I found the discussion about cloning absolutely
butfascinating.
they don't.
Walkman is fascinating because it
It is fascinating to imagine what might have happened if
even English. Strictly speaking, it
the US had not declared war against Japanisn’t
in World
War II.
was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two
simple English words together to name their product. That
doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is
the glorious messiness of English.
The story of his adventures in the Arctic was
that
fascinating to listen to.
Sentence
Word
strictly speaking: if one uses words, applies rules, etc. in
Theexact
government
tries to ban words
their
sense
from English and declares
that
He’s not strictly speaking an artist; he is more
of a Walkman is not desirable; so they
performer.
invent a word, balladeur, which French
kids are supposed to say instead -but they don't.
Strictly speaking she was not qualified for the job. But
Walkman is fascinating because it
we employed her because of her honesty.
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two
simple English words together to name their product. That
doesn’t bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is
the glorious messiness of English.
Sentence
Word
That happy tolerance, that willingness to accept words from
anywhere, explains the richness of English and why it has
become, to a very real extent, the first truly global language.
How did the language of a small island off the coast of
Europe become the language of the planet -- more widely
spoken and written than any other has ever been? The
history of English is present in the first words a child learns
about identity (I, me, you); possession (mine, yours); the
body (eye, nose, mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities
(food, water). These words all come from Old English or
Anglo-Saxon English, the core of our language.
Sentence
Word
1. Paraphrase this part.
That happy tolerance, that willingness to accept words from
of English and why it has
become, to a very real extent, the first truly global language.
did the language of a small island off the coast of
2. Translate this part intoHow
Chinese.
Europe become the language of the planet -- more widely
英语的历史体现在孩子最先学会用来表示……的词汇当中。
spoken and written than any other has ever been? The
history of English is present in the first words a child learns
about identity (I, me, you); possession (mine, yours); the
body (eye, nose, mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities
(food, water). These words all come from Old English or
Anglo-Saxon English, the core of our language.
The history of English is revealed in the first words a
anywhere,
explains the richness
child learns about
…
Sentence
Word
tolerance: n.
1) the quality of allowing other people to say and do as they
Thatagree
happy
tolerance,
that willingness
to accept words from
like, even if you don’t
or approve
of it (followed
by for)
School teachers have
to have a explains
great deal of
tolerance
in of English and why it has
anywhere,
the
richness
order to deal with difficult children.
become, to a very real extent, the first truly global language.
How did the language of a small island off the coast of
2) the ability to bear sth. painful or unpleasant (followed by
of/for/to)
Europe become the language of the planet -- more widely
Human beings have
limited and
tolerance
of/to noise.
spoken
written
than any other has ever been? The
The patient had no
tolerance
pain. is
Whenever
he in
was
history
of for/to
English
present
the first words a child learns
injected he would cry.
about identity (I, me, you); possession (mine, yours); the
Collocation:
body (eye,表示宽容
nose, mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities
display/show tolerance
have tolerance
(food, water).
These words all come from Old English or
有容忍力;有雅量
对……的容忍
tolerance for/of/towards
Anglo-Saxon
English, the core of our language.
He has no tolerance for people who disagree with him.
Sentence
Word
to a (very real, certain,
etc.)happy
extent: tolerance,
to the degreethat
specified
That
willingness
to accept words from
thestillrichness
of English and why it has
I agree with him anywhere,
to some extentexplains
but there are
some
areas of sharp disagreement
become, tobetween
a veryus.real extent, the first truly global language.
To some extent the
water
pollution
has affectedof
local
How
did
the language
a small island off the coast of
residents.
Europe become the language of the planet -- more widely
从某种程度上说,餐馆的失败是由于经营不善造成的。
spoken and written than any other has ever been? The
history of English is present in the first words a child learns
To a certain extent the failure of the restaurant was due to
bad management.about identity (I, me, you); possession (mine, yours); the
body (eye, nose, mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities
(food, water). These words all come from Old English or
Anglo-Saxon English, the core of our language.
Sentence
Word
necessity: n.
1) something necessary or indispensable
That happy tolerance, that willingness to accept words from
anywhere, explains the richness of English and why it has
A lot of people would consider a TV as more of a
become,
necessity than a luxury
item. to a very real extent, the first truly global language.
How did the language of a small island off the coast of
The workers’ wages were so low that they hardly had
become
theoflanguage
of the planet -- more widely
enough money toEurope
buy the bare
necessities
life.
spoken
and
written
any other has ever been? The
force one
to do
sth.; thethan
state of
2) circumstances that
being necessary;
the need
sth. (followed
by of/for)in the first words a child learns
history
offor
English
is present
有必要再搞一次选举吗?
about identity (I, me, you); possession (mine, yours); the
Is there any necessity for another election?
body (eye, nose, mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities
There is absolutely
no necessity
for you
to be words
involved all
in come from Old English or
(food,
water).
These
the project.
Anglo-Saxon English, the core of our language.
Water is a basic necessity of life.
Sentence
Word
necessity: n.
Collocation:
feel the necessity of
That
感到有……的必要
happy
tolerance, that willingness to accept words from
最低限度的必需品
the bare necessities
anywhere,
explains the richness of English and why it has
生活必需品
the necessities of life
become,
to a very real extent, the first truly global language.
无法避免地, 势必; 迫不得已
by / of necessity
How did the language of a small island off the coast of
You will of necessity
remain
silent. the language of the planet -- more widely
Europe
become
你势必得保持沉默。
spoken and written than any other has ever been? The
I walked home by
necessity,
because the
car broke down.
history
of English
is present
in the first words a child learns
汽车坏了,我不得已只好走回家。
about identity (I, me, you); possession (mine, yours); the
body (eye, nose, mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities
(food, water). These words all come from Old English or
Anglo-Saxon English, the core of our language.
Sentence
Word
Usually short and direct, these are words we still use today
for the things that really matter to us.
Great speakers often use Old
English to arouse our emotions.
For example, during World War II,
Winston Churchill made this
speech, stirring the courage of his
people against Hitler’s armies
positioned to cross the English Channel: “We shall fight on
the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we
shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in
the hills. We shall never surrender.”
Sentence
Word
Usually short and direct, these are words we still use today
for the things that really matter to us.
What kind of rhetorical device is used here? And what’s the
function of it?
The rhetorical device used here is called parallelism(排比
Great speakers often use Old
法 ). With this device the sentences become more
arouse
our on
emotions.
powerful and English
will leave ato
deeper
impression
listeners
or readers. For example, during World War II,
Winston to
Churchill
positioned
cross themade
Englishthis
Channel: “ We shall fight
speech,
stirring the
courage
histhe landing grounds, we
on
the beaches,
we shall
fightofon
people
against
armies
shall
fight
in theHitler’s
fields and
in the streets, we shall fight in
the hills. We shall never surrender.”
Sentence
Word
Usually short and direct, these are words we still use today
for (athe
thingsfeeling
that really
matter to us.
arouse: vt. provoke
particular
or attitude)
Great speakers often use Old
These educational toys give children a feeling of self-worth
English
tochallenging
arouse tasks.
our emotions.
by arousing their
interest in
For example, during World War II,
Winston
Churchill
made this
The man’s strange
behavior aroused
the policeman’s
suspicions.
speech, stirring the courage of his
people against Hitler’s armies
positioned to cross the English Channel: “We shall fight on
the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we
shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in
the hills. We shall never surrender.”
Sentence
Word
surrender: v. give in (followed by to)
After several weeks
of severeshort
attacks,
Afghanistan’s
Usually
and
direct, these
Taliban forces surrendered to the Northern Alliance.
are words we still use today
for the things that really matter to us.
After the bombs fell on Great
Hiroshima
and
speakers
often use Old
Nagasaki, the Japanese surrendered.
English to arouse our emotions.
Fortoexample,
We’ll never surrender
terrorism during World War II,
despite the terroristWinston
attacks.
Churchill made this
speech, stirring the courage of his
你们必须向警方缴枪。
people against Hitler’s armies
You must surrenderpositioned
your guns to to
thecross
police. the English Channel: “We shall fight on
the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we
shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in
the hills. We shall never surrender.”
Sentence
Word
Virtually every one of those words came from Old
English, except the last -- surrender, which came from
Norman French. Churchill could have said, “We shall never
give in,” but it is one of the lovely -- and powerful -opportunities of English that a writer can mix, for effect,
different words from different backgrounds. Yet there is
something direct to the heart that speaks to us from the
earliest words in our language.
When Julius Caesar invaded
Britain in 55 B.C., English did not
exist. The Celts, who inhabited the
land, spoke languages that survive
today mainly as Welsh. Where those
languages came from is still a mystery, but there is a theory.
Sentence
Word
Virtually every one of those words came from Old
virtually: adv. for the most
part, almost
English,
except the last -- surrender, which came from
Norman
French.
It’s virtually impossible
to tell the
imitation Churchill
from the realcould
thing. have said, “We shall never
give in,” but it is one of the lovely -- and powerful -It has been raining virtually
non-stop for
past several
days.
opportunities
oftheEnglish
that
a writer can mix, for effect,
different words from different backgrounds. Yet there is
晚饭差不多准备好了;我只差做蔬菜了。
something direct to the heart that speaks to us from the
earliest words in our language.
The dinner’s virtually ready; I only have to finish the
When Julius Caesar invaded
vegetables.
Britain in 55 B.C., English did not
exist. The Celts, who inhabited the
land, spoke languages that survive
today mainly as Welsh. Where those
languages came from is still a mystery, but there is a theory.
Sentence
Word
Virtually every one of those words came from Old
English, except the last -- surrender, which came from
French.
Churchill
In July 1937 the Norman
Japanese army
invaded
China. could have said, “We shall never
give in,” but it is one of the lovely -- and powerful -opportunities of English that a writer can mix, for effect,
different words from different backgrounds. Yet there is
something direct to the heart that speaks to us from the
earliest words in our language.
When Julius Caesar invaded
Britain in 55 B.C., English did not
exist. The Celts, who inhabited the
land, spoke languages that survive
today mainly as Welsh. Where those
languages came from is still a mystery, but there is a theory.
invade: vt. enter with armed forces
Sentence
Word
Virtually every one of those words came from Old
English, except the last -- surrender, which came from
The Germans invaded Poland in 1939, leading to the start
of World War II. Norman French. Churchill could have said, “We shall never
give in,” but it is one of the lovely -- and powerful -opportunities of English that a writer can mix, for effect,
different words from different backgrounds. Yet there is
something direct to the heart that speaks to us from the
earliest words in our language.
When Julius Caesar invaded
Britain in 55 B.C., English did not
exist. The
II ■ Celts, who inhabited the
land, spoke languages that survive
today mainly as Welsh. Where those
languages came from is still a mystery, but there is a theory.
Sentence
Word
Virtually
every
of tothose words came from Old
mystery: n. sth. that people
can’t, or have
not one
been able
understand
or explain except the last -- surrender, which came from
English,
Churchill could have said, “We shall never
is one of the lovely -- and powerful -English that a writer can mix, for effect,
成的依然是个谜。
different words from different backgrounds. Yet there is
How Egyptian pyramids
were built
still remains
a mystery.
something
direct
to the
heart that speaks to us from the
earliest words in our language.
No one has ever been able to explain
When
Julius Caesar invaded
the mystery of the Bermuda
Triangle.
Britain in 55 B.C., English did not
exist. The Celts, who inhabited the
land, spoke languages that survive
today mainly as Welsh. Where those
languages came from is still a mystery, but there is a theory.
Norman
The politician’s sudden
deathFrench.
remains a mysterygive
to us all.
in,” but it
埃及的金字塔(pyramid)
是如何建
opportunities
of
Sentence
Word
Virtually
every
of tothose words came from Old
mystery: n. sth. that people
can’t, or have
not one
been able
understand
or explain except the last -- surrender, which came from
English,
Norman French. Churchill could have said, “We shall never
give in,” but it is one of the lovely -- and powerful -pose a mystery
opportunities of 形成疑团
English that a writer can mix, for effect,
from different backgrounds. Yet there is
remain a mystery different words 依然是个谜
something direct使神秘的事真相大白
to the heart that speaks to us from the
clear up a mystery
earliest words in our language.
阐释奥秘
solve/unravel a mystery
When Julius Caesar invaded
处于神秘之中
shrouded/cloaked/wrapped
Britainin mystery
in 55 B.C.,
English did not
exist. The Celts, who inhabited the
land, spoke languages that survive
today mainly as Welsh. Where those
languages came from is still a mystery, but there is a theory.
Collocation:
Sentence
Word
Two centuries ago an English judge in India noticed that
several words in Sanskrit closely resembled some words in
Greek and Latin. A systematic study revealed that many
modern languages descended from a common parent
language, lost to us because nothing was written down.
Identifying similar words, linguists have come up with
what they call an Indo-European parent language, spoken
until 3500 to 2000 B.C. These people had common words
for snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some
scholars assume they lived somewhere in north-central
Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some
established the languages of India and Pakistan, and
others drifted west toward the gentler climates of Europe.
Sentence
Word
centuries
resemble: vt. be like Two
or similar
to
ago an English judge in India noticed that
several words in Sanskrit closely resembled some words in
约翰在各方面都非常像他父亲。
Greek and Latin. A systematic study revealed that many
modern
languages
from a common parent
John resembles
his father very
much in alldescended
ways.
language, lost to us because nothing was written down.
I’d say he resembles his mother more than his
Identifying similar words, linguists have come up with
father.
what they call an Indo-European parent language, spoken
until 3500 to 2000 B.C. These people had common words
for snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some
scholars assume they lived somewhere in north-central
Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some
established the languages of India and Pakistan, and
others drifted west toward the gentler climates of Europe.
Sentence
Word
descend: v. come downTwo
(from centuries
a source), goago
downan
English judge in India noticed that
several words in Sanskrit closely resembled some words in
These ideas descend from those of the ancient
Greek and Latin. A systematic study revealed that many
philosophers.
modern languages descended from a common parent
The old lady descended the stairs.
language, lost to us because nothing was written down.
太阳落山了。
Identifying similar words, linguists have come up with
what they call an Indo-European parent language, spoken
The sun descended behind the hills.
until 3500 to 2000 B.C. These people had common words
for snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some
scholars assume they lived somewhere in north-central
Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some
established the languages of India and Pakistan, and
others drifted west toward the gentler climates of Europe.
Sentence
Word
CF: descend, fall & drop 这几个词都可用作动词,都有“下落”之意。
Two centuries ago an English judge in India noticed that
descend 是相当正式的用法,表示从某一高处落到某一低处。例如:
several words in Sanskrit closely resembled some words in
On turning the corner, we saw that the road descended
Greek and Latin. A systematic study revealed that many
steeply.
modern
转过弯来,我们看到这路陡降。
languages descended from a common parent
language, lost to us because nothing was written down.
fall 为不及物动词,表示由于地球吸引力或失去支撑而导致的下落。广
义上讲,指任何形式的下落。例如:
Identifying similar words, linguists have come up with
Large masses of rock are constantly falling into the sea.
what they call an Indo-European parent language, spoken
大块大块的岩石正不断地坠入海中。
until 3500 to 2000 B.C. These people had common words
drop 表示一点一滴地落下,但通常表示下落或使下落时的速度、方向
出乎意料或不经意。
for例如:
snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some
scholars
The rain was still dropping
from assume
the trees. they lived somewhere in north-central
Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some
雨珠仍由树上滴下。
established the languages of India and Pakistan, and
others drifted west toward the gentler climates of Europe.
Sentence
Word
Two centuries ago an English judge in India noticed that
several words in Sanskrit closely resembled some words in
这学校是由一位意大利教授于1905年建立的。
Greek and Latin. A systematic study revealed that many
The school was established
in 1905
by an Italiandescended
professor.
modern
languages
from a common parent
The bank helps people
wanting to establish
theirbecause
business. nothing was written down.
language,
lost to us
2) place or settle sb./oneself Identifying
in a position, an
office, etc.
similar
words, linguists have come up with
Ingrid Bergman established
what they call an Indo-European parent language, spoken
her fame as a film star at the
until 3500 to 2000 B.C. These people had common words
age of 20.
for snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some
Yao Ming establishedscholars assume they lived somewhere in north-central
himself in the team soon
Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some
after he arrived in U.S.
established the languages of India and Pakistan, and
others drifted west toward the gentler climates of Europe.
establish: vt.
1) cause to be, set up
Sentence
Word
drift:
1. vi. move or go somewhere
in a centuries
slow casual ago
way
Two
2.
an English judge in India noticed that
Jimmy spent the several
year drifting
aroundinEurope.
words
Sanskrit closely resembled some words in
Greek
and
systematic
study revealed that many
The football match was
over, and
theLatin.
crowds A
drifted
away
from the stadium.
modern languages descended from a common parent
She just drifts from job
to job.
language,
lost to us because nothing was written down.
她经常调换工作。
Identifying similar words, linguists have come up with
n.
an Indo-European parent language, spoken
1) the movement or what
course they
of sth.call
drifting
Nowadays there is a until
drift of3500
young to
people
fromB.C.
the country
2000
These people had common words
to the city.
for snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some
2) the general meaning
scholars assume they lived somewhere in north-central
I’m sorry: I can’t catch/get the drift of what you’re saying.
Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some
论点的要旨你明白了吗?
established the languages of India and Pakistan, and
Did you get/see the drift of the argument?
others drifted west toward the gentler climates of Europe.
Sentence
Word
drift:
Two centuries ago an English judge in India noticed that
several 漫无目的地游荡
words in Sanskrit closely resembled some words in
Greek and
Latin. A systematic study revealed that many
drift apart
分开;疏远
modern 渐渐进入;陷入
languages descended from a common parent
drift into/toward
At last, he drifted intolanguage,
a life of crime.
lost to us because nothing was written down.
最后,他陷入了犯罪生涯。 Identifying similar words, linguists have come up with
从……漂流到……
drift from…to…
what they
call an Indo-European parent language, spoken
until
3500
to 2000
B.C. These people had common words
The conversation drifted
from
one subject
to another.
for snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some
谈话从一个主题转到另一个主题。
scholars总的倾向
assume they lived somewhere in north-central
a general drift
Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some
get/catch the drift of…
理解大意
established the languages of India and Pakistan, and
follow sb’s drift
听懂某人的意思
others drifted
west toward the gentler climates of Europe.
Collocation:
drift along
Sentence
Word
Some who made the earliest move westward became known
as the Celts, whom Caesar’s armies found in Britain.
New words came with the Germanic tribes -- the Angles,
the Saxons, etc. -- that slipped across the North Sea to
settle in Britain in the 5th century. Together they formed what
we call Anglo-Saxon society.
The Anglo-Saxons passed on to us their farming
vocabulary, including sheep, ox, earth, wood, field and work.
They must have also enjoyed
themselves because they gave us the
word laughter.
Sentence
Word
Some who made the earliest move westward became known
as the Celts, whom Caesar’s armies found in Britain.
When you have finished
thecame
novel, please
passGermanic
it
Newreading
words
with the
tribes -- the Angles,
on to Laura. the Saxons, etc. -- that slipped across the North Sea to
The King passed
on much
of his fortune
to the
settle
in Britain
in the
5thprincess.
century. Together they formed what
we call Anglo-Saxon society.
The Anglo-Saxons passed on to us their farming
vocabulary, including sheep, ox, earth, wood, field and work.
pass (sth.) on to (sb.): hand or give (sth.) to (sb.)
They must have also enjoyed
themselves because they gave us the
word laughter.
Sentence
Word
The next big influence on English was
Christianity. It enriched the Anglo-Saxon
vocabulary with some 400 to 500 words
from Greek and Latin, including angel,
disciple and martyr.
Then into this relatively peaceful land came the Vikings
from Scandinavia. They also brought to English many
words that begin with sk, like sky and skirt. But Old Norse
and English both survived, and so you can rear a child
(English) or raise a child (Norse). Other such pairs survive:
wish and want, craft and skill, hide and skin. Each such
addition gave English more richness, more variety.
Sentence
Word
addition: n.
1) a person or thing added (followed by to) The next
Christianity.
The baby is a welcome addition to the Smith
family.
big influence on English was
It enriched the Anglo-Saxon
vocabulary with some 400 to 500 words
他将是我们篮球队里可贵的新增力量。
from team.
Greek and Latin, including angel,
He will be a valuable addition to our basketball
disciple
togetherand martyr.
2) the act of adding, esp. adding numbers
Before I entered the primary
my mother
taughtpeaceful
me
Thenschool,
into this
relatively
land came the Vikings
to do addition and subtraction.
from Scandinavia. They also brought to English many
Collocation:
做加法
words that begin
with sk, like sky and skirt. But Old Norse
do addition
make an addition and English both
增加一些
survived, and so you can rear a child
in addition to
除……之外
(English) or raise
a child (Norse). Other such pairs survive:
In addition to his salary, he earns a lot from giving lectures.
wish and want, craft and skill, hide and skin. Each such
in addition
另外;加之
addition
English
more
richness, more variety.
You need money and
time. In gave
addition,
you need
diligence.
Sentence
Word
Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in 1066, when
the Normans conquered England. The
country now had three languages: French
for the nobles, Latin for the churches and
English for the common people. With
three languages competing, there were
sometimes different terms for the same thing. For example,
Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans,
royal and sovereign entered the language as alternatives.
The extraordinary thing was that French did not replace
English. Over three centuries English gradually swallowed
French, and by the end of the 15th century what had
developed was a modified, greatly enriched language -Middle English -- with about 10,000 “borrowed” French
words.
Sentence
Word
Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in 1066, when
the Normans
conquered
England. The
What kind of rhetorical
device is used
here?
country now had three languages: French
The rhetorical
used hereLatin
is called
(转
fordevice
the nobles,
for metonymy
the churches
and
喻 ). Here the word “churches” stands for religious
English for the common people. With
institutions and those who are involved in religious
three
languages
there
practices. For
another
example, competing,
in the sentence
“Thewere
kettle boils.”,sometimes
the word “kettle”
stands terms
for “the for
water
different
thein same thing. For example,
the kettle”.
Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans,
royal and sovereign entered the language as alternatives.
The extraordinary thing was that French did not replace
English. Over three centuries English gradually swallowed
French, and by the end of the 15th century what had
developed was a modified, greatly enriched language -Middle English -- with about 10,000 “borrowed” French
words.
Sentence
Word
Another
flood
newofvocabulary
occurred
conquer: vt. take
possession
andof
control
(a country, city,
etc.) by force;
defeat
the
Normans conquered England. The
in 1066, when
country
nowAlliance
had three
languages:
Afghanistan’s
Northern
conquered
Kabul a French
for the nobles, Latin for the churches and
month ago.
English for the common people. With
three languages competing, there were
sometimes different terms for the same thing. For example,
全世界已作出巨大努力来征服癌症。
Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans,
sovereign
entered
There hasroyal
been aand
tremendous
international
effortthe
to language as alternatives.
conquer cancer.
The extraordinary thing was that French did not replace
English. Over three centuries English gradually swallowed
French, and by the end of the 15th century what had
developed was a modified, greatly enriched language -Middle English -- with about 10,000 “borrowed” French
words.
She has conquered the hearts of many men.
Sentence
Word
CF: conquer, beat & defeat
这三个词都可用作动词,都有“打败”、“胜过”之意。
Another flood of new vocabulary
occurred in 1066, when
conquer: 指通过武力、斗争或坚强的意志把某事或某物、某人置于自
the Normans conquered England. The
己的控制之下。例如:
country now had three languages: French
The Romans conquered
parts
of BritainLatin
in the for
first the churches and
for the
nobles,
century B. C.
English for the common people. With
公元前一世纪罗马人曾占领了英国的部分领土。
three languages competing, there were
beat: 强调对手被彻底打败,该词常用在正式场合,可用于描写任何
sometimes different terms for the same thing. For example,
比赛。例如:
Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans,
She beat her brother at tennis.
royal and sovereign entered the language as alternatives.
在网球上,她打败了她弟弟。
The extraordinary thing was that French did not replace
defeat: 是个普通用语。可指打败敌人、对手,也可指使对手在选举中
English. Over three centuries English gradually swallowed
落选,或使其希望、计划受挫等。例如:
and by
He was defeated by French,
165 votes against
132. the end of the 15th century what had
developed was a modified, greatly enriched language -他以132票对165票落选了。
Middle English -- with about 10,000 “borrowed” French
words.
Sentence
Word
Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in 1066, when
England. The
country
now had
threein languages:
French
His father gave John
the alternative
of staying
high
school or going to for
work.the nobles, Latin for the churches and
English for the common people. With
恐怕除了向警察告发你之外,我别无选择。
three languages competing, there were
I’m afraid I have nosometimes
alternative but different
to report you
to the for the same thing. For example,
terms
police.
Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans,
royal and sovereign entered the language as alternatives.
NB: 该词本意是“另一个,每两者中的第二个”,因此仅限于在两
者之间进行选择,但现在也可指“几种可能中的一种”,诸如
The extraordinary thing was that French did not replace
We have several alternatives to chose from.(有几种可
English. Over three centuries English gradually swallowed
能性可供我们选择。)这样的句子也相当普遍。
French, and by the end of the 15th century what had
developed was a modified, greatly enriched language -Middle English -- with about 10,000 “borrowed” French
words.
alternative:
conquered
1. n. one of two orthe
moreNormans
possibilities (followed
by to)
Sentence
Word
Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in 1066, when
may be used,
had, done, etc.
instead The
2. adj. (of two things)
the that
Normans
conquered
England.
of another; other
country now had three languages: French
foranthe
nobles,
Latin for the churches and
We returned by
alternative
road.
English for the common people. With
three languages competing, there were
NB: 有 时 alternate 可 用 来 代 替 alternative : They had an
sometimes
different terms for
the same thing. For example,
alternate/alternative
plan.(他们另有一个计划。)
但是,
Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans,
alternative被认为是更地道的英语。
royal and sovereign entered the language as alternatives.
The extraordinary thing was that French did not replace
English. Over three centuries English gradually swallowed
French, and by the end of the 15th century what had
developed was a modified, greatly enriched language -Middle English -- with about 10,000 “borrowed” French
words.
Sentence
Word
Another flood of new vocabulary occurred
enrich: vt.
1) make rich or richer
the Normans conquered England. The
in 1066, when
country
now
languages:
French
That once poor coastal
village
hashad
beenthree
enriched
by the
profits from tourism.
for the nobles, Latin for the churches and
油田的发现使许多阿拉伯国家富足起来了。
English for the
common people. With
competing, there were
The discovery ofthree
oil has languages
enriched
many Arabian countries.
sometimes different terms for the same thing. For example,
2) improve
Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans,
and
entered the language as alternatives.
It is important to royal
enrich the
soilsovereign
prior to planting.
The extraordinary thing was that French did not replace
Music can enrichEnglish.
your wholeOver
life. three centuries English gradually swallowed
French, and by the end of the 15th century what had
developed was a modified, greatly enriched language -Middle English -- with about 10,000 “borrowed” French
words.
Sentence
Word
Around 1476 William Caxton set up a printing press in
England and started a communications revolution. Printing
brought into English the wealth of new thinking that sprang
希腊罗马经典著作的译文纷纷印成书册.
from the European Renaissance. Translations of Greek
What kind of rhetorical
is usedclassics
here?
anddevice
Roman
were poured onto the printed page,
and with them thousands of Latin words like capsule and
The author uses personification(拟人法) in
this part.
habitual,
and Greek words like
catastrophe and thermometer. Today
we still borrow from Latin and Greek to
name new inventions, like video,
television and cyberspace.
What is the Chinese version of this part?
Sentence
Word
Around 1476 William Caxton set up a printing press in
England and started a communications revolution. Printing
The word “television”
is formed
“tele” (Greek,
meaningof new thinking that sprang
brought
into by
English
the wealth
“far off”) and “vision” (Latin, meaning “to see”).
from the European Renaissance. Translations of Greek
and Roman classics were poured onto the printed page,
The word “cyberspace” is formed by “cyber” (Greek,
and and
with“space”
them(Old
thousands
of Latin words like capsule and
meaning “to steer”)
French, Latin).
habitual, and Greek words like
catastrophe and thermometer. Today
we still borrow from Latin and Greek to
name new inventions, like video,
television and cyberspace.
Where are the two words “television” and “cyberspace” from?
Sentence
Word
As settlers landed in North
America and established the United
States, English found itself with two
sources -- American and British.
Scholars in Britain worried that the
language was out of control, and
some wanted to set up an academy to decide which words
were proper and which were not. Fortunately their idea has
never been put into practice.
That tolerance for change also represents deeply rooted
ideas of freedom.
Sentence
Word
As settlers landed in North
What can we infer from this sentence about the author’s
America and established the United
attitude towards English?
States, English found itself with two
The author prefers
what English
is today to and
what some
sources
-- American
British.
British scholars wanted it to do.
Scholars in Britain worried that the
language was out of control, and
some wanted to set up an academy to decide which words
were proper and which were not. Fortunately their idea has
never been put into practice.
That tolerance for change also represents deeply rooted
ideas of freedom.
Sentence
Word
source: n.
As settlers landed
1) a place from which sth. comes or is obtained
in North
America and established the United
Tourism, which is a major source of
income for the city,
has been
States,
English found itself with two
seriously affected by SARS.
sources -- American and British.
Do you have any other source of income
Scholars in Britain worried that the
apart from your job?
of control, and
a stream ofwas
waterout
starts
2) the place wherelanguage
some
wanted
set up an academy to decide which words
Where is the source
of the
Amazonto
River?
were proper and which were not. Fortunately their idea has
never been put into practice.
That tolerance for change also represents deeply rooted
ideas of freedom.
Sentence
Word
CF: source & origin 两词均有“根源,起因”之意。
As settlers landed in North
America and established the United
They had to find a new source of income.
States, English found itself with two
他们不得不寻找新的收入来源。
sources -- American and British.
origin : 指事物的起源、源头,含有现在的情景已有变化之意,有时也
指“出身,血统”。
Scholars in Britain worried that the
This practice owes
its origin to
the Chinese.
language
was
out of control, and
这种习俗起源于中国。
some wanted to set up an academy to decide which words
There are a number
of words
in the
English
language
were
proper
and
which
were not. Fortunately their idea has
which were French in origin.
never been put into practice.
英语中有许多单词来源于法语。
That tolerance for change also represents deeply rooted
ideas of freedom.
source: 原指“水源”,转义指事物的“根源,起因或出处”。例如:
Sentence
Word
As settlers landed in North
America
established
out of control: no longer
under the and
regulation,
domination,the
or United
command of another
States, English found itself with two
The fire was out of control by the time the second fire
sources -- American and British.
engine arrived.
Scholars in Britain worried that the
There was nothing they could do about it. The situation
language was out of control, and
was out of control.
some wanted to set up an academy to decide which words
were proper and which were not. Fortunately their idea has
never been put into practice.
That tolerance for change also represents deeply rooted
ideas of freedom.
Sentence
Word
put into practice: carry out, start to perform
As settlers landed in North
America
established
They weren’t allowed
to put intoand
practice
in their daily the United
lives the teachings States,
they received.
English found itself with two
sources -- American and British.
Having delayed several times, we must put this plan
into practice now.
Scholars in Britain worried that the
language was out of control, and
some wanted to set up an academy to decide which words
were proper and which were not. Fortunately their idea has
never been put into practice.
That tolerance for change also represents deeply rooted
ideas of freedom.
Sentence
Word
Danish scholar Otto Jespersen wrote in 1905, “The English
language would not have been what it is if the English had
not been for centuries great respecters of the liberties of
each individual and if everybody had not been free to strike
out new paths for himself.”
I like that idea. Consider that the same cultural soil
producing the English language also nourished the great
principles of freedom and rights of man in the modern world.
The first shoots sprang up in England, and they grew
stronger in America. The English-speaking peoples have
defeated all efforts to build fences around their language.
Sentence
Word
Danish scholar Otto Jespersen wrote in 1905, “The English
What does “that idea” language
refer to?
would not have been what it is if the English had
not been for centuries great respecters of the liberties of
eachthat
individual
and
if everybody
It refers to the opinion
the English
language
today had not been free to strike
results from the great respect English people show for the
out new paths for himself.”
liberties of each individual and his freedom to strike out
new paths for himself. I like that idea. Consider that the same cultural soil
producing the English language also nourished the great
principles of freedom and rights of man in the modern world.
The first shoots sprang up in England, and they grew
stronger in America. The English-speaking peoples have
defeated all efforts to build fences around their language.
Sentence
Word
wrote in 1905, “The English
language would not have been what it is if the English had
The rhetorical device used in these sentences is called
beenuses
for acenturies
great respecters of the liberties of
metaphor. Here not
the author
sustained metaphor:
the cultural soil,each
the first
shoots sprang
… grew had not been free to strike
individual
and ifup,
everybody
stronger, build fences around their language. In this
new paths
for himself.”
case the Englishout
language
is compared
to plants, and
the various cultures influencing
it are
compared
to the that the same cultural soil
I like that
idea.
Consider
soil, while users of English are compared to gardeners.
themany
English
language also nourished the great
Besides this, theproducing
author employs
other metaphors
in this text, such as core of English (Para. 4), another
principles of freedom and rights of man in the modern world.
flood of new vocabulary (Para. 14), and the special
The first
shoots
sprang up in England, and they grew
preserve of grammarians
(Para.
19).
stronger in America. The English-speaking peoples have
defeated all efforts to build fences around their language.
Danish
Otto sentences?
Jespersen
What kind of rhetorical
device scholar
is used in these
Sentence
Word
wrote in 1905, “The English
what it is if the English had
not been for centuries great respecters of the liberties of
After working for his father for about ten years, he
and if everybody had not been free to strike
decided to strike outeach
on hisindividual
own.
out new paths for himself.”
约翰辞掉原来的工作,开始从事旅游推销员的工作。
I like that idea. Consider that the same cultural soil
John quit his job and struck out as a traveling salesman.
producing the English language also nourished the great
principles of freedom and rights of man in the modern world.
The first shoots sprang up in England, and they grew
stronger in America. The English-speaking peoples have
defeated all efforts to build fences around their language.
Danish scholar
Otto
Jespersen
strike out: start being independent;
start doing
what
one wants
to do in life language would not have been
Sentence
Word