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The Republican Victory
Section 1 – 298-301
• Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated as the third President
of the United States in 1801.
– The Republicans had also won control of both houses
of Congress.
• The Federalists were no longer in control, but…
– With the changing of the parties, Americans
saw that the country could change its political
leadership peacefully.
• Jefferson would have Congressional support for
many of his plans.
Jefferson in Office
• First, Jefferson created his cabinet:
– James Madison = Secretary of State
– Albert Gallatin = Secretary of the Treasury
• Jefferson and Gallatin reduced the size of the army and
the navy.
– They hoped that the money saved could be put
towards paying down the national debt.
• Gallatin was ordered by Jefferson to end domestic taxes
like the Whiskey Tax.
– Also, close the agencies that collected the domestic
taxes that were being ended.
Marbury v. Madison
• Just before Jefferson took office, John Adams and the
Federalist controlled Congress appointed many
Federalists to become federal judges.
– When Jefferson entered office, some Federalists had
not yet received their official paperwork stating that
they were judges.
• Jefferson ordered Madison to not give out the
• William Marbury (Federalist) did not receive his
papers, and he asked the Supreme Court to
• Marbury wanted the Supreme Court to order the
Executive Branch to hand over the papers.
Marbury v. Madison
• The Supreme Court heard the case and decided:
– That Marbury had been treated unfairly.
– However; the S.C. Justices felt that Congress and the
Constitution had not given the S.C. the power to order the
Executive Branch to hand over the papers.
• The Judiciary Act of 1789 said that the S.C. did have the
– The S.C. felt that the Judiciary Act was
Marbury v. Madison
• The S.C.’s decision in this case established the power of
Judicial Review = The S.C. is allowed to declare an act of
Congress unconstitutional and the law is no longer in
– Judicial Review greatly increased the S.C.’s legal
authority and made it a stronger branch of the federal
French Louisiana
Section 2 – 302-307
• In 1800, France was led by French General Napoleon
– He wanted to rebuild France’s empire in North
America, but first he had to gain control of the island
of Hispaniola (Present-day Haiti and the Dominican
• Hispaniola would be a supply base for the French
French Louisiana
• Enslaved Africans led an uprising and took over
Hispaniola from the French in 1790.
– They were led by escaped slave, Toussaint-Louverture
• In 1802, Napoleon’s troops were defeated on Hispaniola
by Louverture’s army.
• Jefferson worried that if the French did eventually gain
control of Hispaniola, they may also be able to block U.S.
westward expansion.
The Louisiana Purchase
• Jefferson knew that New Orleans was the “hub” for U.S.
expansion because it controlled all major shipping on the
Mississippi River.
– He asked the U.S. ambassador to France to contact
the French government about purchasing New
Orleans and West Florida.
• Napoleon offered to sell all of Louisiana.
– France was about to go to war with Great
Britain and Napoleon needed money for his
European armies.
The Louisiana Purchase
• The French offered a price of $15 million for the Louisiana
Territory and Jefferson accepted.
– Jefferson felt that the Constitution did not give him the
right to make the purchase, but he felt he was acting in the
best interest of the U.S.
– The region stretched west from the Mississippi River to the
Rocky Mountains.
• 830,000 square miles and covers 14 current U.S. states.
Mission of Discovery
• Jefferson wanted information about the land the U.S. had just
purchased. He specifically wanted to know about:
– The native peoples, soil, animals, plants, and minerals.
– He also wanted to know if there was an all-water river
route to the Pacific Ocean.
– Jefferson chose former army captain Meriwether Lewis to
lead an expedition in the LA Territory.
• Lewis chose army lieutenant William Clark to be coleader.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
• In May 1804, Lewis, Clark, and a small group of carefully
selected and skilled frontiersman set out from St. Louis,
– This group of explorers is known as The Corps of
– They travelled north up the Missouri River on a
custom-built boat called a keelboat.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
• Early in the trip, the group met many American Indian
tribes, among which was a Shoshone woman and her
French husband.
– Sacagawea and her husband, helped guide The Corps
of Discovery.
– She also acted as an interpreter and peacemaker.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
• The expedition travelled up the Missouri River, hiked up
and over the Rocky Mountains and floated down the
Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean.
– They arrived at the Pacific Ocean in November 1805,
and built a small camp which they named Fort
Clatsop after the neighboring Clatsop Indians.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
• In March 1806, the Corps of Discovery headed home.
– They arrived in St. Louis in September 1806.
• The Corps of Discovery travelled just over 8,000 miles in
2 ½ years.
– Only one member of the group died, and he died of a
heart attack.
– Clark was a cartographer(map maker) who mapped
the trip and measured the distance travelled.
• Today’s satellite navigation shows that Clark’s
measurement on the distance travelled was off by
only 40 miles.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
• The Route of the Corps of Discovery
Pike’s Exploration
• In 1806, young army officer Zebulon Pike was sent on a
mission to:
– Find the headwaters of the Red River.
• The Red River runs through Louisiana and part of
Texas and was considered part of the Louisiana
– Spy on Spanish outposts in the Southwest.
Pike’s Exploration
• Pike led his expedition to the Rocky Mountains in present-day
– While there he tried unsuccessfully to climb the mountain
that today is known as Pikes Peak, 14,000+ feet high.
• Then he headed south into present-day New Mexico where the
Spanish arrested him and accused him of being a spy. He
denied the accusation.
– Eventually he was released and returned to the U.S. to
report his findings.
Pike’s Exploration
The Pikes Peak Cog Railway
The Pikes Peak Rally Car
Danger on the High Seas
Section 3 – 308-313
• In 1803, Great Britain and France went to war.
– Both countries wanted to stop U.S. ships from delivering
to their enemy much needed supplies.
• Both countries passed laws which allowed their
navies and privateers to capture ships that were
supplying the enemy.
– Unfortunately, the majority of those ships
belonged to U.S. businesses.
– Many U.S. ships and tons of cargo was captured.
» If the British captured a U.S. ship, they
sometimes forced the sailors to serve on their
warships. This is known as Impressment.
Danger on the High Seas
• In 1807, impressment made national news and created
widespread resentment towards Britain.
– The HMS Leopard stopped the USS Chesapeake and
tried to remove 4 sailors.
• The captain of the Chesapeake refused to hand
them over, so the Leopard opened fire and took the
sailors by force.
A Trade War
• Many Americans favored going to war with Britain while
others favored an embargo = the banning of trade with
– Jefferson and the Republicans favored an embargo and in
1807 passed the Embargo Act = the law that banned trade
with foreign countries.
• The New England states were hit hard by the Embargo
Act because most of their profits came from trade with
foreign countries.
• U.S. businesses eventually ignored the law and
smuggled goods to foreign countries.
• Great Britain and France were not affected by the law,
and Jefferson’s popularity fell.
The Rise of Tecumseh
• In the early 1800s, thousands of American settlers were
entering the Northwest Territory.
– Because of the Treaty of Greenville, many American
Indian tribes were forced to give up their lands.
– Great Britain wanted to slow U.S. westward expansion, but
didn’t want to go to war with the U.S.
• The British government gave military aid to Indian
tribes living in the NW Territory.
• Tecumseh was a powerful Indian leader who wanted to
organize NW Territory tribes against the U.S. settlers.
War on the Frontier
War on the Frontier
• William Henry Harrison – Governor of the Indiana Territory
felt that Tecumseh was a threat to U.S. power.
– He met with Tecumseh and reminded him of his obligation
to follow the treaties.
• Tecumseh said that the treaties were not valid because
no single chief could sell land belonging to all Indians
and the Indians were on the land first.
– Harrison warned Tecumseh not to “mess with the
War on the Frontier
• Tecumseh left his tribe to travel south to make an alliance
with southern tribes.
– While he was gone, Harrison raised an army and marched
to Tecumseh’s tribal settlement.
• In November of 1811, Harrison’s army and Tecumseh’s
tribe fought an all-day battle at the Battle of
– The American Indians were defeated and their
village was destroyed.
The War Debate
• The frontier fighting had angered many Americans who
felt that Britain was encouraging the Indians to attack
– This was seen as an insult to U.S. authority and the
War Hawks wanted to go to war with Britain.
• War Hawks = members of Congress who favored
war with Britain.
– Typically members of Congress that
represented Southern and Western states were
War Hawks, whereas New England
representatives wanted peace so that they could
resume trade.
A Declaration of War
• In 1808, Republican James Madison was elected
– He faced rising pressure from the effects of the
Embargo Act and from the War Hawks.
– He also felt that because Britain was violating U.S.
neutrality by seizing U.S. ships and through
impressment, Britain was at war with the U.S.
– Madison asked Congress to decide how the U.S.
should react.
• Congress voted for war with Great Britain.
– Madison would become commander and chief
during the War of 1812.
The War at Sea
Section 4 – 314-319
• In August of 1812, the USS Constitution faced off against
the HMS Guerriere off the coast of Nova Scotia.
– The Constitution won the battle in part because the
hull of the ship was sheathed in copper.
• Since British cannonballs had bounced harmlessly
off her hull, she was nicknamed “Old Ironsides.”
The War at Sea
• When the war of 1812 began, the British navy had
hundreds of ships stationed around the world whereas
the U.S. had less than 20 ships total.
– To even the odds, the U.S. government hired privateer
ships which were very successful in capturing and/or
sinking hundreds of British ships.
• The British responded by sending a large naval
force which patrolled the East coast from Maine to
– The British naval blockade greatly reduced the
U.S.’s ability to trade.
The Canadian Border
• Early navy victories went to the U.S., so the government
wanted to capitalize on those successes by invading
– In July 1812, the British joined with American Indians
led by Tecumseh, to defeat an American army and
capture Fort Detroit.
– By the end of 1812, the British controlled all of the
Great Lakes region.
The Canadian Border
The original design of Fort
Fort Detroit Today
The Canadian Border
• In April of 1813, the U.S. struck back.
– The U.S. needed to break Britain’s control of Lake Erie.
• Captain Oliver Hazard Perry was tasked with
accomplishing that mission.
– He built a small fleet and fought the British at the
Battle of Lake Erie in September 1813.
» Both sides took heavy casualties, and the
Americans won the battle.
The Frontier War
• The U.S. Army took advantage of Perry’s victory by pursuing
the British and their Indian allies into Canada.
– In October 1813, General Harrison’s army fought the
British and Tecumseh’s Indian forces in southern Canada
at the Battle of the Thames.
• The Americans won the battle, and Tecumseh was
– The British-Indian alliance was weakened by
Tecumseh’s death and the U.S. border with Canada
was secured.
The British on the Offensive
• The British defeated France in 1814, and so turned their
full attention to the U.S.
– They sent more troops to America and strengthened
their naval blockade of the East coast.
– Next the British attacked and burned Washington
• The White House and other government buildings
were burned.
The British on the Offensive
• Next, the British sailed to Baltimore, Maryland which
was guarded by Fort McHenry.
– The British Navy shelled Fort McHenry for 25 hours
and on the morning after, Francis Scott Key saw that
“the flag was still there.”
The British on the Offensive
Fort McHenry
The Star Spangled Banner
on display at the Museum of
American History in
Washington D.C.
The Battle of New Orleans
• After the British attacked Washington, they launched
another attack, this time on New Orleans.
– There goal was to capture the city which would allow
them to control the shipping traffic on the Mississippi
– Andrew Jackson commanded a mixed force of 4,500
soldiers from the U.S. Army, state militia, and a group
of pirates led by Jean Laffite.
The Battle of New Orleans
• Jackson’s troops constructed an earth and log wall that
was flanked by the Mississippi River on one side and a
swamp on the other.
• In January, 1815 the British marched 5,300 men towards
Jackson’s defensive line.
– They advanced under cover of a thick morning fog but
about halfway across the battlefield, the fog lifted and
they became easy targets for the Jackson’s army.
The Battle of New Orleans
The Battle of New Orleans
• Only a very small detachment of British infantry reached
the American line, and they were quickly beaten back.
• The British suffered 2,000 casualties.
• The Americans suffered 70 casualties.
• The Battle of New Orleans took place 15 days after the
War of 1812 officially ended.
Ending the War
• In December 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed,
ending the War of 1812.
– The treaty did not address impressment or trade
embargoes so they both continued to exist.
• For the U.S., winning the War of 1812 showed the world
that the new nation could stand up to Great Britain.