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The Republican Victory Section 1 – 298-301 • Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated as the third President of the United States in 1801. – The Republicans had also won control of both houses of Congress. • The Federalists were no longer in control, but… – With the changing of the parties, Americans saw that the country could change its political leadership peacefully. • Jefferson would have Congressional support for many of his plans. Jefferson in Office • First, Jefferson created his cabinet: – James Madison = Secretary of State – Albert Gallatin = Secretary of the Treasury • Jefferson and Gallatin reduced the size of the army and the navy. – They hoped that the money saved could be put towards paying down the national debt. • Gallatin was ordered by Jefferson to end domestic taxes like the Whiskey Tax. – Also, close the agencies that collected the domestic taxes that were being ended. Marbury v. Madison • Just before Jefferson took office, John Adams and the Federalist controlled Congress appointed many Federalists to become federal judges. – When Jefferson entered office, some Federalists had not yet received their official paperwork stating that they were judges. • Jefferson ordered Madison to not give out the paperwork. • William Marbury (Federalist) did not receive his papers, and he asked the Supreme Court to intervene. • Marbury wanted the Supreme Court to order the Executive Branch to hand over the papers. Marbury v. Madison • The Supreme Court heard the case and decided: – That Marbury had been treated unfairly. – However; the S.C. Justices felt that Congress and the Constitution had not given the S.C. the power to order the Executive Branch to hand over the papers. • The Judiciary Act of 1789 said that the S.C. did have the power. – The S.C. felt that the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional. Marbury v. Madison • The S.C.’s decision in this case established the power of Judicial Review = The S.C. is allowed to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional and the law is no longer in force. – Judicial Review greatly increased the S.C.’s legal authority and made it a stronger branch of the federal government. French Louisiana Section 2 – 302-307 • In 1800, France was led by French General Napoleon Bonaparte. – He wanted to rebuild France’s empire in North America, but first he had to gain control of the island of Hispaniola (Present-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic). • Hispaniola would be a supply base for the French military. French Louisiana • Enslaved Africans led an uprising and took over Hispaniola from the French in 1790. – They were led by escaped slave, Toussaint-Louverture • In 1802, Napoleon’s troops were defeated on Hispaniola by Louverture’s army. • Jefferson worried that if the French did eventually gain control of Hispaniola, they may also be able to block U.S. westward expansion. The Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson knew that New Orleans was the “hub” for U.S. expansion because it controlled all major shipping on the Mississippi River. – He asked the U.S. ambassador to France to contact the French government about purchasing New Orleans and West Florida. • Napoleon offered to sell all of Louisiana. – France was about to go to war with Great Britain and Napoleon needed money for his European armies. The Louisiana Purchase • The French offered a price of $15 million for the Louisiana Territory and Jefferson accepted. – Jefferson felt that the Constitution did not give him the right to make the purchase, but he felt he was acting in the best interest of the U.S. – The region stretched west from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. • 830,000 square miles and covers 14 current U.S. states. Mission of Discovery • Jefferson wanted information about the land the U.S. had just purchased. He specifically wanted to know about: – The native peoples, soil, animals, plants, and minerals. – He also wanted to know if there was an all-water river route to the Pacific Ocean. – Jefferson chose former army captain Meriwether Lewis to lead an expedition in the LA Territory. • Lewis chose army lieutenant William Clark to be coleader. The Lewis and Clark Expedition • In May 1804, Lewis, Clark, and a small group of carefully selected and skilled frontiersman set out from St. Louis, Missouri. – This group of explorers is known as The Corps of Discovery. – They travelled north up the Missouri River on a custom-built boat called a keelboat. The Lewis and Clark Expedition • Early in the trip, the group met many American Indian tribes, among which was a Shoshone woman and her French husband. – Sacagawea and her husband, helped guide The Corps of Discovery. – She also acted as an interpreter and peacemaker. The Lewis and Clark Expedition • The expedition travelled up the Missouri River, hiked up and over the Rocky Mountains and floated down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. – They arrived at the Pacific Ocean in November 1805, and built a small camp which they named Fort Clatsop after the neighboring Clatsop Indians. The Lewis and Clark Expedition • In March 1806, the Corps of Discovery headed home. – They arrived in St. Louis in September 1806. • The Corps of Discovery travelled just over 8,000 miles in 2 ½ years. – Only one member of the group died, and he died of a heart attack. – Clark was a cartographer(map maker) who mapped the trip and measured the distance travelled. • Today’s satellite navigation shows that Clark’s measurement on the distance travelled was off by only 40 miles. The Lewis and Clark Expedition • The Route of the Corps of Discovery Pike’s Exploration • In 1806, young army officer Zebulon Pike was sent on a mission to: – Find the headwaters of the Red River. • The Red River runs through Louisiana and part of Texas and was considered part of the Louisiana Territory. – Spy on Spanish outposts in the Southwest. Pike’s Exploration • Pike led his expedition to the Rocky Mountains in present-day Colorado. – While there he tried unsuccessfully to climb the mountain that today is known as Pikes Peak, 14,000+ feet high. • Then he headed south into present-day New Mexico where the Spanish arrested him and accused him of being a spy. He denied the accusation. – Eventually he was released and returned to the U.S. to report his findings. Pike’s Exploration The Pikes Peak Cog Railway The Pikes Peak Rally Car Race Danger on the High Seas Section 3 – 308-313 • In 1803, Great Britain and France went to war. – Both countries wanted to stop U.S. ships from delivering to their enemy much needed supplies. • Both countries passed laws which allowed their navies and privateers to capture ships that were supplying the enemy. – Unfortunately, the majority of those ships belonged to U.S. businesses. – Many U.S. ships and tons of cargo was captured. » If the British captured a U.S. ship, they sometimes forced the sailors to serve on their warships. This is known as Impressment. Danger on the High Seas • In 1807, impressment made national news and created widespread resentment towards Britain. – The HMS Leopard stopped the USS Chesapeake and tried to remove 4 sailors. • The captain of the Chesapeake refused to hand them over, so the Leopard opened fire and took the sailors by force. A Trade War • Many Americans favored going to war with Britain while others favored an embargo = the banning of trade with Britain. – Jefferson and the Republicans favored an embargo and in 1807 passed the Embargo Act = the law that banned trade with foreign countries. • The New England states were hit hard by the Embargo Act because most of their profits came from trade with foreign countries. • U.S. businesses eventually ignored the law and smuggled goods to foreign countries. • Great Britain and France were not affected by the law, and Jefferson’s popularity fell. The Rise of Tecumseh • In the early 1800s, thousands of American settlers were entering the Northwest Territory. – Because of the Treaty of Greenville, many American Indian tribes were forced to give up their lands. – Great Britain wanted to slow U.S. westward expansion, but didn’t want to go to war with the U.S. • The British government gave military aid to Indian tribes living in the NW Territory. • Tecumseh was a powerful Indian leader who wanted to organize NW Territory tribes against the U.S. settlers. War on the Frontier War on the Frontier • William Henry Harrison – Governor of the Indiana Territory felt that Tecumseh was a threat to U.S. power. – He met with Tecumseh and reminded him of his obligation to follow the treaties. • Tecumseh said that the treaties were not valid because no single chief could sell land belonging to all Indians and the Indians were on the land first. – Harrison warned Tecumseh not to “mess with the U.S.” War on the Frontier • Tecumseh left his tribe to travel south to make an alliance with southern tribes. – While he was gone, Harrison raised an army and marched to Tecumseh’s tribal settlement. • In November of 1811, Harrison’s army and Tecumseh’s tribe fought an all-day battle at the Battle of Tippecanoe. – The American Indians were defeated and their village was destroyed. The War Debate • The frontier fighting had angered many Americans who felt that Britain was encouraging the Indians to attack settlers. – This was seen as an insult to U.S. authority and the War Hawks wanted to go to war with Britain. • War Hawks = members of Congress who favored war with Britain. – Typically members of Congress that represented Southern and Western states were War Hawks, whereas New England representatives wanted peace so that they could resume trade. A Declaration of War • In 1808, Republican James Madison was elected President. – He faced rising pressure from the effects of the Embargo Act and from the War Hawks. – He also felt that because Britain was violating U.S. neutrality by seizing U.S. ships and through impressment, Britain was at war with the U.S. – Madison asked Congress to decide how the U.S. should react. • Congress voted for war with Great Britain. – Madison would become commander and chief during the War of 1812. The War at Sea Section 4 – 314-319 • In August of 1812, the USS Constitution faced off against the HMS Guerriere off the coast of Nova Scotia. – The Constitution won the battle in part because the hull of the ship was sheathed in copper. • Since British cannonballs had bounced harmlessly off her hull, she was nicknamed “Old Ironsides.” The War at Sea • When the war of 1812 began, the British navy had hundreds of ships stationed around the world whereas the U.S. had less than 20 ships total. – To even the odds, the U.S. government hired privateer ships which were very successful in capturing and/or sinking hundreds of British ships. • The British responded by sending a large naval force which patrolled the East coast from Maine to Georgia. – The British naval blockade greatly reduced the U.S.’s ability to trade. The Canadian Border • Early navy victories went to the U.S., so the government wanted to capitalize on those successes by invading Canada. – In July 1812, the British joined with American Indians led by Tecumseh, to defeat an American army and capture Fort Detroit. – By the end of 1812, the British controlled all of the Great Lakes region. The Canadian Border The original design of Fort Detroit Fort Detroit Today The Canadian Border • In April of 1813, the U.S. struck back. – The U.S. needed to break Britain’s control of Lake Erie. • Captain Oliver Hazard Perry was tasked with accomplishing that mission. – He built a small fleet and fought the British at the Battle of Lake Erie in September 1813. » Both sides took heavy casualties, and the Americans won the battle. The Frontier War • The U.S. Army took advantage of Perry’s victory by pursuing the British and their Indian allies into Canada. – In October 1813, General Harrison’s army fought the British and Tecumseh’s Indian forces in southern Canada at the Battle of the Thames. • The Americans won the battle, and Tecumseh was killed. – The British-Indian alliance was weakened by Tecumseh’s death and the U.S. border with Canada was secured. The British on the Offensive • The British defeated France in 1814, and so turned their full attention to the U.S. – They sent more troops to America and strengthened their naval blockade of the East coast. – Next the British attacked and burned Washington D.C. • The White House and other government buildings were burned. The British on the Offensive • Next, the British sailed to Baltimore, Maryland which was guarded by Fort McHenry. – The British Navy shelled Fort McHenry for 25 hours and on the morning after, Francis Scott Key saw that “the flag was still there.” The British on the Offensive Fort McHenry The Star Spangled Banner on display at the Museum of American History in Washington D.C. The Battle of New Orleans • After the British attacked Washington, they launched another attack, this time on New Orleans. – There goal was to capture the city which would allow them to control the shipping traffic on the Mississippi River. – Andrew Jackson commanded a mixed force of 4,500 soldiers from the U.S. Army, state militia, and a group of pirates led by Jean Laffite. The Battle of New Orleans • Jackson’s troops constructed an earth and log wall that was flanked by the Mississippi River on one side and a swamp on the other. • In January, 1815 the British marched 5,300 men towards Jackson’s defensive line. – They advanced under cover of a thick morning fog but about halfway across the battlefield, the fog lifted and they became easy targets for the Jackson’s army. The Battle of New Orleans The Battle of New Orleans • Only a very small detachment of British infantry reached the American line, and they were quickly beaten back. • The British suffered 2,000 casualties. • The Americans suffered 70 casualties. • The Battle of New Orleans took place 15 days after the War of 1812 officially ended. Ending the War • In December 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed, ending the War of 1812. – The treaty did not address impressment or trade embargoes so they both continued to exist. • For the U.S., winning the War of 1812 showed the world that the new nation could stand up to Great Britain.