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Traders, Invaders and
the Roots of Judaism
Sacred Western Wall in Jerusalem and Islamic Dome
of the Rock
•Discuss central beliefs
of Judaism and its
legacy on world history
•Identify and discuss
characteristics of
The Phoenicians created separate city states along
the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea
(present day Lebanon) in 1100 BCE
Seafarers, the Phoenicians were traders,
bringing goods to the trading centers of
Byblos, Sidon and Tyre. They were
known for superior shipbuilding.
Phoenician colonies developed in North Africa,
Spain and Sicily. Phoenician traders controlled
trade in the Mediterranean Sea and were the first to
travel along the Atlantic coast.
Achievements of the Phoenicians
• Master ship builders and seafarers
• Produced purple dye, highly valued in its
• Developed the alphabet used for trade and
adopted around the world.
• Established trade routes outside the
Mediterranean around the continent
of Europe
Hittites invade from the Northern
Caucasus Mountain region
Settling in Anatolia around 2000
They were
Many of the
came from
this language
Hittite Achievements
• Excelled in the technology of war
• Chariots and use of Iron were superior
•Had a code of
laws that was
similar to Hammurabi’s
Code but not as harsh
The Roots of Judaism
Canaan, in
Israel became
the home for
between 2000
600 BCE
They would later become known as the Jews which
describes the geographic area of the tribe of Judah
Why are the Hebrews so
important in World History?
They were the first to believe in only
one god, also called Monotheism. Two
other world religions would be influenced
by Hebrew beliefs.
Abraham, the father of Judaism is also a
prophet in Islam. Does anyone know why?
the father of monotheism,
had two sons
Hebrews and
Christians are
Muslims are
The story of the Hebrews
•Abraham was told by God
(“Yahweh”) to take his people to the
land of Canaan which was the
promised land.
•Drought and famine forced the
Hebrews to migrate to Egypt where
they were forced into slavery.
The story of the Hebrews:
•Moses survived as male babies were
ordered killed. He was raised by an
Egyptian princess.
•The Exodus: Moses led the Hebrews
out of Egypt and out of slavery—today
celebrated as Passover.
•Moses received the Ten
Commandments upon Mount Sinai
The Torah, which is the most sacred text for Hebrews,
is also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
Central beliefs of Judaism
•Belief in one god – Monotheism
•God promised to care for the Hebrews
in return for their promises to follow God’s
law. This is called a covenant.
•The Torah contains the written records
and beliefs of the Jews
•The Ten Commandments are the moral
code that Jews are expected to abide by.
The Hebrews from 1020-922 BCE
Hebrew Kings
Established Jerusalem as the capital
Built a sacred temple in Jerusalem that housed the
Ark of the Covenant which contained the tablets of
Moses’ law.
Building of the temple caused very high taxes and
the Northern Hebrews revolted. The kingdom
divided into two – Israel in the North and Judah in
the south.
The Western or Wailing wall- the only remains
of the sacred temple in Jerusalem
The Jewish Diaspora
Jerusalem was conquered many times but in
586, the Babylonians conquered the Jews and
destroyed the temple. Many Jews were exiled
to Babylon.
The scattering of the Jews that were not exiled
is known as the Jewish Diaspora. The second
Jewish Diaspora occurs when Rome conquered
Jerusalem in 70 CE.
In 539 BCE a new conqueror arrived –
his name was Cyrus and he was the
leader of the Persians.
Persians came from present day Iran- they
ruled the most powerful empire in the world.
Cyrus freed the Jews and allowed them to
return to Jerusalem.
Nubia and Kush Rise between 2000 and
1000 BCE
As Egypt’s empire
fades, Kush
a dynasty in
Egypt and adopts
Egyptian culture.
Ancient pyramids of Meroe, capital of Kush
By 671 BCE, the
Assyrians had
conquered Egypt
while the Kushites
retreated south
to Meroe where
Kushite civilization
Picture citations