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Chapter 10 Interesting Facts and Information Industrial Revolution – began GB in the 1700’s, it was a time when people used machinery and new methods to increase productivity. WWI known as the Great War – machines designed for war were mass-produced. WWI - 1914-1918 Trench warfare in WWI Nazi’s – National Socialist German Worker’s party –Germany became a dictatorship under Adolf Hitler. WWII – 1939 G attacked Poland and in 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. Axis Powers – Germany, Italy and Japan Allied Powers – (1939)Britain, France, China, (1941) – United States and Soviet Union Marshall Plan – 1948, US started a loan program to help rebuild Europe and try to stop the spread of communism. Truman Doctrine – 1948, US offered military aid to countries fighting communism inside their borders. (Greece and Turkey) NATO – North American Treaty Organization – 1949, formed to respond to possible attacks by the Soviet Union. (each member country agreed to treat an attack on any other member as an attack on itself. BeNeLux trade union – Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg – an arrangement for free movement of money, goods, & people among these nations. European Economic Community – Common Market – agreed to free trade among themselves. (became the European Union) Warsaw Pact – 1955, Soviet Union formed its satellites into an anti Western military alliance. Berlin Wall – (East – Communist), (West – non-communist) – split between Eastern and Western Europe. Sputnik I – Soviets took lead in space race with US, in 1959, 1st spacecraft to orbit the earth. Yuri Gagarin – 1961, Soviet astronaut became 1st human being to circle the earth. Neil Armstrong – 1969, 1st person to walk on the moon. Boris Yeltsin Yugoslavia – communist country- Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Macedonia, & smaller Yugoslavia made up of Serbia & Montenegro Czechoslovakia – became Czech Republic & Slovakia 1991 Soviet Union – broke into 15 independent republics.